Computed tomography and sectional anatomy of the head cavities in donkey (Equus asinus).Anat Sci Int. 2014 Jun; 89(3):140-50.AS
The purpose of this study was to describe the computed tomographic (CT) anatomy of normal donkey head cavities to be used as a basis for interpretation of CT images of donkey. Six adult donkeys' heads of undetermined sex were used in this study. The donkey heads were divided into three regions-nasal, orbital, and cranial-to show the morphology of the following cavities: nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, orbital cavity, oral cavity, pharyngeal cavity, especially the guttural pouch, cranial cavity and temporomandibular joint. The donkey head had six pairs of sinuses: three paranasal (the frontal, maxillary and sphenopalatine sinuses) and three nasal (dorsal, middle and ventral conchal) sinuses. The maxillary sinus was subdivided into rostral and caudal compartments by a thin incomplete bony septum that was identified and labeled according to cheek teeth landmarks. The topographic description and relationship between the nasal, oral, orbital, cranial, temporomandibular joint, pharyngeal cavities and paranasal sinuses were demonstrated. The articular disc, articular surface and joint capsule of the temporomandibular joint were indicated easily in our CT and cross sectional images.