Characterization of integrons and their cassettes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates from poultry in Korea.Poult Sci. 2013 Nov; 92(11):3036-43.PS
Ninety-nine Escherichia coli and 33 Salmonella isolates were assessed for antimicrobial susceptibility (disc diffusion test). Sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes were identified through PCR, and class 1 and class 2 integrons with resistance gene cassettes were identified with PCR followed by sequencing. Salmonella (63.6%) and E. coli (85.8%) isolates were multidrug resistant (resistance to 3 or more antimicrobials), and the highest incidences of resistance were observed for tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and sulfamethoxazole. The sul1, sul2, tetA, and tetB resistance determinant genes were predominant in E. coli, whereas only sul2 and tetA were identified in Salmonella isolates. In the E. coli isolates, 54 (54.5%) class 1 integrons, 6 (6.1%) class 2 integrons, and 5 (5.1%) class 1 and class 2 integrons together were detected, whereas only 3 (9.1%) integrons were found in the Salmonella serovars. Around 87% of the integrons in E. coli harbored resistance gene cassettes conferring resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA, aminoglycoside resistance gene), trimethoprim (dfrA, dihydrofolate reductase gene), streptothricin [sat1 and sat2 (streptothricin acetyltransferase), and estX (putative esterases)]. The most common gene cassettes were aadA1+dfrA1 and dfrA1+sat2+aadA1 in class 1 and class 2 integrons, respectively. Other cassettes including aadA5+dfrA7, dfrA12+aadA2, aadA2+aadA1+dfrA12, and aadA5+aadA2/dfrA7 were also identified. Among the Salmonella serovars, Salmonella Malmoe harbored aadA1+dfrA1 and dfrA12+sat2+aadA1 genes. The aadA1, aadA2, sat2, and dfrA1 had wide variation in similarity among themselves and from previously reported genes worldwide. The diverse gene cassettes could be responsible for the prominent resistance profiles observed and a potential source for dissemination of antimicrobial resistance determinants to other bacteria.