Activation of sirtuin 1 attenuates cerebral ventricular streptozotocin-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and cognitive injuries in rat hippocampi.Age (Dordr). 2014 Apr; 36(2):613-23.A
Patients with diabetes in the aging population are at high risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and reduction of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity occurs simultaneously with the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in the AD-affected brain. It is not clear, however, whether SIRT1 is a suitable molecular target for the treatment of AD. Here, we employed a rat model of brain insulin resistance with intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ; 3 mg/kg, twice with an interval of 48 h). The ICV-STZ-treated rats were administrated with resveratrol (RSV; SIRT1-specific activator) or a vehicle via intraperitoneal injection for 8 weeks (30 mg/kg, once per day). In ICV-STZ-treated rats, the levels of phosphorylated tau and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) at the hippocampi were increased significantly, whereas SIRT1 activity was decreased without change of its expression level. The capacity of spatial memory was also significantly lower in ICV-STZ-treated rats compared with age-matched control. RSV, a specific activator of SIRT1, which reversed the ICV-STZ-induced decrease in SIRT1 activity, increases in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, tau phosphorylation, and impairment of cognitive capability in rats. In conclusion, SIRT1 protects hippocampus neurons from tau hyperphosphorylation and prevents cognitive impairment induced by ICV-STZ brain insulin resistance with decreased hippocampus ERK1/2 activity.