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Prevalence and risk factors of iron deficiency in healthy young children in the southwestern Netherlands.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2014; 58(2):193-8JP

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA), during the first years of life, are associated with delayed motor and neurological development. Many studies evaluated iron status without an assessment of an acute-phase protein to identify infection. Because most indicators of iron status are influenced by infection, these data may underestimate the ID prevalence. A food consumption survey in the Netherlands showed that the mean iron intake of children ages 2 to 3 years was below the advised adequate intake of 7 mg/day. The aim of the study was to investigate iron status in a well-defined, healthy population of young children in the southwestern region of the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for ID.

METHODS

We conducted a multicenter, observational study in healthy children ages 0.5 to 3 years. We defined ID as ferritin <12 μg/L and IDA when, in addition, hemoglobin was <110 g/L. Children with elevated C-reactive protein levels (>5 mg/L) or underlying causes for anemia were excluded. Parents filled in a questionnaire to identify risk factors for ID.

RESULTS

We included 400 children in the study. ID and IDA were detected in 18.8% and 8.5% of the children, respectively. The present use of formula and the visit of preschool/day care were associated with a lower prevalence of ID, and a high intake of cow's milk was associated with a higher prevalence of ID, after adjustment for age.

CONCLUSIONS

ID is present in 18.8% of healthy children ages 0.5 to 3 years and living in the southwestern region of the Netherlands. The present visit of preschool/day care and the use of formula are associated with a reduced risk of ID, whereas a high intake of cow's milk is associated with an increased risk of ID.

Authors+Show Affiliations

*Department of Pediatrics, Juliana Children's Hospital †Haga Teaching Hospital ‡Department of Clinical Chemistry §Department of Anesthesiology, Juliana Children's Hospital, Haga Teaching Hospital, The Hague ||Department of Pediatrics ¶Department of Anesthesiology, Sophia Children's Hospital, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam #Department of Pediatrics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24145621

Citation

Uijterschout, Lieke, et al. "Prevalence and Risk Factors of Iron Deficiency in Healthy Young Children in the Southwestern Netherlands." Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 2, 2014, pp. 193-8.
Uijterschout L, Vloemans J, Vos R, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of iron deficiency in healthy young children in the southwestern Netherlands. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014;58(2):193-8.
Uijterschout, L., Vloemans, J., Vos, R., Teunisse, P. P., Hudig, C., Bubbers, S., ... Brus, F. (2014). Prevalence and risk factors of iron deficiency in healthy young children in the southwestern Netherlands. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 58(2), pp. 193-8. doi:10.1097/MPG.0000000000000216.
Uijterschout L, et al. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Iron Deficiency in Healthy Young Children in the Southwestern Netherlands. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014;58(2):193-8. PubMed PMID: 24145621.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prevalence and risk factors of iron deficiency in healthy young children in the southwestern Netherlands. AU - Uijterschout,Lieke, AU - Vloemans,Janneke, AU - Vos,Rimke, AU - Teunisse,Peter-Paul, AU - Hudig,Cisca, AU - Bubbers,Sally, AU - Verbruggen,Sascha, AU - Veldhorst,Margriet, AU - de Leeuw,Tom, AU - van Goudoever,Johannes B, AU - Brus,Frank, PY - 2013/10/23/entrez PY - 2013/10/23/pubmed PY - 2015/4/17/medline SP - 193 EP - 8 JF - Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition JO - J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. VL - 58 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVES: Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA), during the first years of life, are associated with delayed motor and neurological development. Many studies evaluated iron status without an assessment of an acute-phase protein to identify infection. Because most indicators of iron status are influenced by infection, these data may underestimate the ID prevalence. A food consumption survey in the Netherlands showed that the mean iron intake of children ages 2 to 3 years was below the advised adequate intake of 7 mg/day. The aim of the study was to investigate iron status in a well-defined, healthy population of young children in the southwestern region of the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for ID. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, observational study in healthy children ages 0.5 to 3 years. We defined ID as ferritin <12 μg/L and IDA when, in addition, hemoglobin was <110 g/L. Children with elevated C-reactive protein levels (>5 mg/L) or underlying causes for anemia were excluded. Parents filled in a questionnaire to identify risk factors for ID. RESULTS: We included 400 children in the study. ID and IDA were detected in 18.8% and 8.5% of the children, respectively. The present use of formula and the visit of preschool/day care were associated with a lower prevalence of ID, and a high intake of cow's milk was associated with a higher prevalence of ID, after adjustment for age. CONCLUSIONS: ID is present in 18.8% of healthy children ages 0.5 to 3 years and living in the southwestern region of the Netherlands. The present visit of preschool/day care and the use of formula are associated with a reduced risk of ID, whereas a high intake of cow's milk is associated with an increased risk of ID. SN - 1536-4801 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24145621/Prevalence_and_risk_factors_of_iron_deficiency_in_healthy_young_children_in_the_southwestern_Netherlands_ L2 - http://Insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=24145621 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -