Carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid phase microextraction for the determination of strychnine and brucine in urine.Talanta. 2013 Nov 15; 116:188-94.T
A mixed matrix membrane (MMM), based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and hollow fiber (HF), was prepared and combined with solid phase microextraction (SPME) mode to determine strychnine and brucine in urine. This MMM was prepared by dispersing CNTs in water via surfactant assistance, and then immobilizing CNTs into the pores of HF by capillary forces and sonification. The prepared carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber (CNTs-HF) was subsequently wetted by a few microliters of organic solvent (1-octanol), and then applied to extract the target analytes in direct immersion sampling mode. After extraction, analytes were desorbed via ultrasonic-assisted effect, and then detected via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To achieve the highest extraction efficiency, main extraction parameters such as the type and amount of surfactant, the diameter and doping level of CNTs, extraction time, desorption condition, pH value, stirring rate and volume of the donor phase were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity ranges with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9990, good repeatability and batch-to-batch reproducibility with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6% and 5% for strychnine and brucine, respectively, and low limits of detection (0.7 and 0.9 µg L(-1) for strychnine and brucine, respectively). The recoveries were in the range of 83.81-116.14% at three spiked levels. The developed method was successfully applied to real urine sample with mean relative recoveries of 94.28% and 91.30% for strychnine and brucine, respectively. The developed method shows comparable results against reference methods and is a simple, green, and cost-effective microextraction technique.