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25th anniversary article: The evolution of electronic skin (e-skin): a brief history, design considerations, and recent progress.
Adv Mater 2013; 25(42):5997-6038AM

Abstract

Human skin is a remarkable organ. It consists of an integrated, stretchable network of sensors that relay information about tactile and thermal stimuli to the brain, allowing us to maneuver within our environment safely and effectively. Interest in large-area networks of electronic devices inspired by human skin is motivated by the promise of creating autonomous intelligent robots and biomimetic prosthetics, among other applications. The development of electronic networks comprised of flexible, stretchable, and robust devices that are compatible with large-area implementation and integrated with multiple functionalities is a testament to the progress in developing an electronic skin (e-skin) akin to human skin. E-skins are already capable of providing augmented performance over their organic counterpart, both in superior spatial resolution and thermal sensitivity. They could be further improved through the incorporation of additional functionalities (e.g., chemical and biological sensing) and desired properties (e.g., biodegradability and self-powering). Continued rapid progress in this area is promising for the development of a fully integrated e-skin in the near future.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Chemical Engineering, 381 N. South Axis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24151185

Citation

Hammock, Mallory L., et al. "25th Anniversary Article: the Evolution of Electronic Skin (e-skin): a Brief History, Design Considerations, and Recent Progress." Advanced Materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.), vol. 25, no. 42, 2013, pp. 5997-6038.
Hammock ML, Chortos A, Tee BC, et al. 25th anniversary article: The evolution of electronic skin (e-skin): a brief history, design considerations, and recent progress. Adv Mater Weinheim. 2013;25(42):5997-6038.
Hammock, M. L., Chortos, A., Tee, B. C., Tok, J. B., & Bao, Z. (2013). 25th anniversary article: The evolution of electronic skin (e-skin): a brief history, design considerations, and recent progress. Advanced Materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.), 25(42), pp. 5997-6038. doi:10.1002/adma.201302240.
Hammock ML, et al. 25th Anniversary Article: the Evolution of Electronic Skin (e-skin): a Brief History, Design Considerations, and Recent Progress. Adv Mater Weinheim. 2013 Nov 13;25(42):5997-6038. PubMed PMID: 24151185.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - 25th anniversary article: The evolution of electronic skin (e-skin): a brief history, design considerations, and recent progress. AU - Hammock,Mallory L, AU - Chortos,Alex, AU - Tee,Benjamin C-K, AU - Tok,Jeffrey B-H, AU - Bao,Zhenan, Y1 - 2013/10/22/ PY - 2013/05/13/received PY - 2013/06/22/revised PY - 2013/10/24/entrez PY - 2013/10/24/pubmed PY - 2014/9/11/medline KW - electronic skin KW - flexible electronics KW - sensors KW - smart skin KW - stretchable electronics SP - 5997 EP - 6038 JF - Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) JO - Adv. Mater. Weinheim VL - 25 IS - 42 N2 - Human skin is a remarkable organ. It consists of an integrated, stretchable network of sensors that relay information about tactile and thermal stimuli to the brain, allowing us to maneuver within our environment safely and effectively. Interest in large-area networks of electronic devices inspired by human skin is motivated by the promise of creating autonomous intelligent robots and biomimetic prosthetics, among other applications. The development of electronic networks comprised of flexible, stretchable, and robust devices that are compatible with large-area implementation and integrated with multiple functionalities is a testament to the progress in developing an electronic skin (e-skin) akin to human skin. E-skins are already capable of providing augmented performance over their organic counterpart, both in superior spatial resolution and thermal sensitivity. They could be further improved through the incorporation of additional functionalities (e.g., chemical and biological sensing) and desired properties (e.g., biodegradability and self-powering). Continued rapid progress in this area is promising for the development of a fully integrated e-skin in the near future. SN - 1521-4095 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24151185/25th_anniversary_article:_The_evolution_of_electronic_skin__e_skin_:_a_brief_history_design_considerations_and_recent_progress_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201302240 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -