Provisional CDC guidelines for the use and safety monitoring of bedaquiline fumarate (Sirturo) for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.MMWR Recomm Rep. 2013 Oct 25; 62(RR-09):1-12.MR
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, the two most effective of the four first-line TB drugs (the other two drugs being ethambutol and pyrazinamide). MDR TB includes the subcategory of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR TB), which is MDR TB with additional resistance to any fluoroquinolone and to at least one of three injectable anti-TB drugs (i.e., kanamycin, capreomycin, or amikacin). MDR TB is difficult to cure, requiring 18-24 months of treatment after sputum culture conversion with a regimen that consists of four to six medications with toxic side effects, and carries a mortality risk greater than that of drug-susceptible TB. Bedaquiline fumarate (Sirturo or bedaquiline) is an oral diarylquinoline. On December 28, 2012, on the basis of data from two Phase IIb trials (i.e., well-controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of drugs in patients with a disease or condition to be treated, diagnosed, or prevented), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved use of bedaquiline under the provisions of the accelerated approval regulations for "serious or life-threatening illnesses" (21CFR314.500) (Cox EM. FDA accelerated approval letter to Janssen Research and Development. Available at http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/appletter/2012/204384Orig1s000ltr.pdf). This report provides provisional CDC guidelines for FDA-approved and unapproved, or off-label, uses of bedaquiline in certain populations, such as children, pregnant women, or persons with extrapulmonary MDR TB who were not included in the clinical trials for the drug. CDC's Division of TB Elimination developed these guidelines on the basis of expert opinion informed by data from systematic reviews and literature searches. This approach is different from the statutory standards that FDA uses when approving drugs and drug labeling. These guidelines are intended for health-care professionals who might use bedaquiline for the treatment of MDR TB for indicated and off-label uses. Aspects of these guidelines are not identical to current FDA-approved labeling for bedaquiline. Bedaquiline should be used with clinical expert consultation as part of combination therapy (minimum four-drug treatment regimen) and administered by direct observation to adults aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of pulmonary MDR TB (Food and Drug Administration. SIRTURO [bedaquiline] tablets label. Available at http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/204384s000lbl.pdf). Use of the drug also can be considered for individual patients in other categories (e.g., persons with extrapulmonary TB, children, pregnant women, or persons with HIV or other comorbid conditions) when treatment options are limited. However, further study is required before routine use of bedaquiline can be recommended in these populations. A registry for persons treated with bedaquiline is being implemented by Janssen Therapeutics to track patient outcomes, adverse reactions, laboratory testing results (e.g., diagnosis, drug susceptibility, and development of drug resistance), use of concomitant medications, and presence of other comorbid conditions. Suspected adverse reactions (i.e., any adverse event for which there is a reasonable possibility that the drug caused the adverse event) and serious adverse events (i.e., any adverse event that results in an outcome such as death, hospitalization, permanent disability, or a life-threatening situation) should be reported to Janssen Therapeutics at telephone 1-800-526-7736, to FDA at telephone 1-800-332-1088 or at http://www.fda.gov/medwatch, and to CDC's Emergency Operations Center at telephone 1-770-488-7100.