Brain-type natriuretic peptide and right ventricular end-diastolic volume index measurements are imprecise estimates of circulating blood volume in critically ill subjects.J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Nov; 75(5):813-8.JT
Surrogate indicators have often been used to estimate intravascular volume to guide fluid management. Brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been used as a noninvasive adjunct in the diagnosis of fluid overload and as a marker of response to therapy, especially in individuals with congestive heart failure. Similarly, right ventricular end-diastolic volume index (RVEDVI) measurements represent another parameter used to guide fluid resuscitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether BNP and RVEDVI are clinically valuable parameters that can distinguish among hypovolemia, euvolemia, and hypervolemia, as measured by blood volume (BV) analysis in critically ill surgical subjects.
This observational study was part of a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Subjects with pulmonary artery catheters for the treatment of traumatic injuries, severe sepsis/septic shock, cardiovascular collapse, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and postsurgical care were studied. Circulating BV was measured by a radioisotope dilution technique using the BVA-100 Analyzer (Daxor Corporation, New York, NY) within the first 24 hours of acute resuscitation. BV results were reported as percent deviation from the patient's ideal BV based on height and percent deviation from optimum weight. Hypovolemia was defined as less than 0%, euvolemia was defined as 0% to +16%, and hypervolemia was defined as greater than +16% deviation from ideal BV. RVEDVI was measured by continuous cardiac output pulmonary artery catheters (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA). BNP and RVEDVI measurements obtained with BV analysis were evaluated with Fisher's exact test and regression analysis.
In 81 subjects, there was no difference in BV status between those with BNP of 500 pg/mL or greater and BNP of less than 500 pg/mL (p = 0.82) or in those with RVEDVI of 140 mL/m or greater and RVEDVI of less than 140 mL/m (p = 0.43). No linear relationship existed between BV and these parameters.
In critically ill surgical patients, BNP and RVEDVI were not associated with intravascular volume status, although they may be useful as indices that reflect increased cardiac preload.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE
Diagnostic study, level III.