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Dietary N-nitroso compounds and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada.
Br J Nutr 2014; 111(6):1109-17BJ

Abstract

Several N-nitroso compounds (NOC) have been shown to be carcinogenic in a variety of laboratory animals, but evidence of their carcinogenicity in humans is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between NOC intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and possible effect modification by vitamins C and E and protein in a large case-control study carried out in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada. A total of 1760 case patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and 2481 population controls were asked to complete a self-administered FFQ to evaluate their dietary intakes 1 year before diagnosis (for cases) or interview (for controls). Adjusted OR and 95 % CI were calculated across the quintiles of NOC (measured by N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)) intake and relevant food items using unconditional logistic regression. NDMA intake was found to be associated with a higher risk of CRC (highest v. lowest quintiles: OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·96; P for trend = 0·005), specifically for rectal carcinoma (OR 1·61, 95 % CI 1·11, 2·35; P for trend = 0·01). CRC risk also increased with the consumption of NDMA-containing meats when the highest tertile was compared with the lowest tertile (OR 1·47, 95 % CI 1·03, 2·10; P for trend = 0·20). There was evidence of effect modification between dietary vitamin E and NDMA. Individuals with high NDMA and low vitamin E intakes had a significantly increased risk than those with both low NDMA and low vitamin E intakes (OR 3·01, 95 % CI 1·43, 6·51; P for interaction = 0·017). The present results support the hypothesis that NOC intake may be positively associated with CRC risk in humans. Vitamin E, which inhibits nitrosation, could modify the effect of NDMA on CRC risk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Community Health and Humanities, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL A1B 3V6, Canada.Division of Community Health and Humanities, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL A1B 3V6, Canada.Division of Community Health and Humanities, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL A1B 3V6, Canada.Discipline of Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL, Canada.Division of Community Health and Humanities, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL A1B 3V6, Canada.Division of Community Health and Humanities, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL A1B 3V6, Canada.Division of Community Health and Humanities, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL A1B 3V6, Canada.Division of Community Health and Humanities, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL A1B 3V6, Canada.Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL, Canada.Division of Community Health and Humanities, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL A1B 3V6, Canada.Population Studies and Surveillance, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, ON, Canada.Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL, Canada.Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24160559

Citation

Zhu, Yun, et al. "Dietary N-nitroso Compounds and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: a Case-control Study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 111, no. 6, 2014, pp. 1109-17.
Zhu Y, Wang PP, Zhao J, et al. Dietary N-nitroso compounds and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada. Br J Nutr. 2014;111(6):1109-17.
Zhu, Y., Wang, P. P., Zhao, J., Green, R., Sun, Z., Roebothan, B., ... Mclaughlin, J. R. (2014). Dietary N-nitroso compounds and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada. The British Journal of Nutrition, 111(6), pp. 1109-17. doi:10.1017/S0007114513003462.
Zhu Y, et al. Dietary N-nitroso Compounds and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: a Case-control Study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada. Br J Nutr. 2014 Mar 28;111(6):1109-17. PubMed PMID: 24160559.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary N-nitroso compounds and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada. AU - Zhu,Yun, AU - Wang,Peizhon Peter, AU - Zhao,Jing, AU - Green,Roger, AU - Sun,Zhuoyu, AU - Roebothan,Barbara, AU - Squires,Josh, AU - Buehler,Sharon, AU - Dicks,Elizabeth, AU - Zhao,Jinhui, AU - Cotterchio,Michelle, AU - Campbell,Peter T, AU - Jain,Meera, AU - Parfrey,Patrick S, AU - Mclaughlin,John R, Y1 - 2013/10/25/ PY - 2013/10/29/entrez PY - 2013/10/29/pubmed PY - 2014/5/6/medline SP - 1109 EP - 17 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br. J. Nutr. VL - 111 IS - 6 N2 - Several N-nitroso compounds (NOC) have been shown to be carcinogenic in a variety of laboratory animals, but evidence of their carcinogenicity in humans is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between NOC intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and possible effect modification by vitamins C and E and protein in a large case-control study carried out in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada. A total of 1760 case patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and 2481 population controls were asked to complete a self-administered FFQ to evaluate their dietary intakes 1 year before diagnosis (for cases) or interview (for controls). Adjusted OR and 95 % CI were calculated across the quintiles of NOC (measured by N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)) intake and relevant food items using unconditional logistic regression. NDMA intake was found to be associated with a higher risk of CRC (highest v. lowest quintiles: OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·96; P for trend = 0·005), specifically for rectal carcinoma (OR 1·61, 95 % CI 1·11, 2·35; P for trend = 0·01). CRC risk also increased with the consumption of NDMA-containing meats when the highest tertile was compared with the lowest tertile (OR 1·47, 95 % CI 1·03, 2·10; P for trend = 0·20). There was evidence of effect modification between dietary vitamin E and NDMA. Individuals with high NDMA and low vitamin E intakes had a significantly increased risk than those with both low NDMA and low vitamin E intakes (OR 3·01, 95 % CI 1·43, 6·51; P for interaction = 0·017). The present results support the hypothesis that NOC intake may be positively associated with CRC risk in humans. Vitamin E, which inhibits nitrosation, could modify the effect of NDMA on CRC risk. SN - 1475-2662 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24160559/Dietary_N_nitroso_compounds_and_risk_of_colorectal_cancer:_a_case_control_study_in_Newfoundland_and_Labrador_and_Ontario_Canada_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0007114513003462/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -