Dietary synbiotic application modulates Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) intestinal microbial communities and intestinal immunity.Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013 Dec; 35(6):1948-56.FS
A feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary administration of Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M and short chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) intestinal health. Salmon (initial average weight 250 g) were allocated into triplicate sea pens and were fed either a control diet (commercial diet: 45% protein, 20% lipid) or a synbiotic treatment diet (control diet + P. acidilactici at 3.5 g kg(-1) and 7 g kg(-1) scFOS) for 63 days. At the end of this period, fish were sampled for intestinal microbiology, intestinal histology and the expression of selected immune-related genes (IL1β, TNFα, IL8, TLR3 and MX-1) in the intestine. Compared to the control fish, the total bacterial levels were significantly lower in the anterior mucosa, posterior mucosa and posterior digesta of the synbiotic fed fish. qPCR revealed good recovery (log 6 bacteria g(-1)) of the probiotic in the intestinal digesta of the synbiotic fed fish and PCR-DGGE revealed that the number of OTUs, as well as the microbial community diversity and richness were significantly higher in the anterior digesta of the synbiotic fed fish than the control. Compared to the control fed fish, the mucosal fold (villi) length and the infiltration of epithelial leucocytes were significantly higher in the anterior and posterior intestine, respectively, in the synbiotic group. Real-time PCR demonstrated that all of the genes investigated were significantly up-regulated in the anterior and posterior intestine of the synbiotic fed salmon, compared to the control group. At the systemic level, serum lysozyme activity was significantly higher in the synbiotic fed fish and growth performance, feed utilisation and biometric measurements (condition factor, gutted weight and gut loss) were not affected. Together these results suggest that the synbiotic modulation of the gut microbiota has a protective action on the intestinal mucosal cells, improving morphology and stimulating the innate immune response without negatively affecting growth performance or feed utilization of farmed Atlantic salmon.