Effects of red wine on established markers of arterial structure and function in human studies: current knowledge and future research directions.Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2013; 6(6):613-25ER
Evidence from observational studies suggests that mild-to-moderate consumption of red wine is associated with reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Various individual chemical components of red wine also show salutary effects on vascular homeostasis, that is, enhanced endothelial function and arterial distensibility, both in vitro and in animal studies. However, testing the beneficial potential of red wine in primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention on established surrogate cardiovascular markers requires further study with longer term intervention trials. This report reviews and critically appraises the published evidence for the effects of red wine on endothelium-dependent vasodilation, arterial stiffness and arterial wave reflections in healthy subjects and in patients with cardiovascular disease. Suggestions for future research directions are also provided.