Reduced expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in preeclamptic placentas is associated with decreased PPARγ but increased PPARα expression.Endocrinology. 2014 Jan; 155(1):299-309.E
Placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) is reduced in pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia (PE). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors β/δ (PPARβ/δ) have been shown to suppress 11β-HSD2 expression in human placental cells. Our objectives were to investigate whether the reduced 11β-HSD2 expression is associated with the changes in PPARs in PE placentas, and whether PPARα and PPARγ affect 11β-HSD2 expression in placental cells. PPARα and PPARβ/δ mRNA and protein expression was increased, whereas PPARγ mRNA and protein expression was decreased in PE placentas. 11β-HSD2 protein expression was inversely correlated with PPARβ/δ in normal placentas but correlated positively with PPARγ and inversely to PPARα in PE placentas. In cultured placental cells, PPARα agonist inhibited, whereas PPARγ agonist stimulated, 11β-HSD2 mRNA and protein expression and activity in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of retinoid X nuclear receptor α (RXRα) resulted in a loss of PPARγ effect but not PPARα effect on11β-HSD2. The PPARα effect remained, but the PPARγ effect was lost in the presence of the translational inhibitor cycloheximide. PPARγ agonist dose-dependently stimulated specificity protein 1 (Sp-1) protein expression. Inhibition or knockdown of Sp-1 resulted in a loss of the effects of PPARα and PPARγ. The Sp-1 protein level was not correlated with 11β-HSD2 and PPARs in normal placentas, whereas Sp-1 expression was correlated with 11β-HSD2, PPARγ, and PPARβ/δ in PE placentas. Our data indicate that 11β-HSD2 expression can be modulated by PPARα and PPARγ in placental trophoblasts through Sp-1. Decreased 11β-HSD2 expression in PE placenta might be associated with decreased PPARγ but increased PPARα expression.