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Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Nutr Res. 2013 Nov; 33(11):932-41.NR

Abstract

Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial β-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-L-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Veterans Administration Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24176233

Citation

Kathirvel, Elango, et al. "Acetyl-L-carnitine and Lipoic Acid Improve Mitochondrial Abnormalities and Serum Levels of Liver Enzymes in a Mouse Model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease." Nutrition Research (New York, N.Y.), vol. 33, no. 11, 2013, pp. 932-41.
Kathirvel E, Morgan K, French SW, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nutr Res. 2013;33(11):932-41.
Kathirvel, E., Morgan, K., French, S. W., & Morgan, T. R. (2013). Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nutrition Research (New York, N.Y.), 33(11), 932-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2013.08.001
Kathirvel E, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine and Lipoic Acid Improve Mitochondrial Abnormalities and Serum Levels of Liver Enzymes in a Mouse Model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Nutr Res. 2013;33(11):932-41. PubMed PMID: 24176233.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. AU - Kathirvel,Elango, AU - Morgan,Kengathevy, AU - French,Samuel W, AU - Morgan,Timothy R, Y1 - 2013/09/18/ PY - 2013/05/17/received PY - 2013/08/01/revised PY - 2013/08/02/accepted PY - 2013/11/2/entrez PY - 2013/11/2/pubmed PY - 2014/5/16/medline KW - ALC KW - ALT KW - AST KW - Acetyl-L-carnitine KW - BSA KW - CPS-1 KW - CoA KW - H&E KW - HF KW - High fat diet KW - LA KW - Lipoic acid KW - MDA KW - Mitochondria KW - Mouse KW - NAFLD KW - NASH KW - Nonalcoholic fatty liver KW - Oxidative stress KW - SF KW - WAT KW - acetyl-l-carnitine KW - alanine aminotransferase KW - aspartate aminotransferase KW - bovine serum albumin KW - cabamoyl phosphate synthase 1 KW - coenzyme A KW - hematoxylin and eosin KW - high fat KW - lipoic acid KW - malondialdehyde KW - nonalcoholic fatty liver disease KW - nonalcoholic steatohepatitis KW - standard fat KW - white adipose tissue SP - 932 EP - 41 JF - Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) JO - Nutr Res VL - 33 IS - 11 N2 - Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial β-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-L-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation. SN - 1879-0739 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24176233/Acetyl_L_carnitine_and_lipoic_acid_improve_mitochondrial_abnormalities_and_serum_levels_of_liver_enzymes_in_a_mouse_model_of_nonalcoholic_fatty_liver_disease_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0271-5317(13)00187-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -