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Human fear extinction and return of fear using reconsolidation update mechanisms: the contribution of on-line expectancy ratings.
Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2014 Sep; 113:165-73.NL

Abstract

Disruption of the reconsolidation of conditioned fear memories has been suggested as a non-pharmacological means of preventing the return of learned fear in human populations. A reconsolidation update paradigm was developed in which a reconsolidation window is opened by a single isolated retrieval trial of a previously reinforced CS+ which is then followed by Extinction Training within that window. However, follow-up studies in humans using multi-methods fear conditioning indices (e.g., fear-potentiated startle, skin conductance, US-expectancy) have failed to replicate the retrieval+extinction effects. In the present study, we further investigated the retrieval+extinction reconsolidation update paradigm by directly comparing the acquisition, extinction, and return of fear-potentiated startle in the absence or presence of US-expectancy measures (using a trial-by-trial response keypad) with and without retrieval of a previously acquired CS-US association. Participants were fear conditioned to two visual cue CS+'s, one of which was presented as a single, isolated retrieval trial before Extinction Training and one that was extinguished as usual. The results show that the inclusion of US-expectancy measures strengthens the CS-US association to provide enhanced fear conditioning and maintenance of fear memories over the experimental sessions. In addition, in the groups that used on-line US-expectancy measures, the retrieval+extinction procedure reduced reinstatement of fear-potentiated startle to both previously reinforced CS+'s, as compared to the extinction as usual group.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur, GA, United States; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur, GA, United States; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur, GA, United States; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur, GA, United States; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur, GA, United States; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur, GA, United States; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States. Electronic address: snorrho@emory.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24183839

Citation

Warren, Victor Taylor, et al. "Human Fear Extinction and Return of Fear Using Reconsolidation Update Mechanisms: the Contribution of On-line Expectancy Ratings." Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, vol. 113, 2014, pp. 165-73.
Warren VT, Anderson KM, Kwon C, et al. Human fear extinction and return of fear using reconsolidation update mechanisms: the contribution of on-line expectancy ratings. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2014;113:165-73.
Warren, V. T., Anderson, K. M., Kwon, C., Bosshardt, L., Jovanovic, T., Bradley, B., & Norrholm, S. D. (2014). Human fear extinction and return of fear using reconsolidation update mechanisms: the contribution of on-line expectancy ratings. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 113, 165-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2013.10.014
Warren VT, et al. Human Fear Extinction and Return of Fear Using Reconsolidation Update Mechanisms: the Contribution of On-line Expectancy Ratings. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2014;113:165-73. PubMed PMID: 24183839.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Human fear extinction and return of fear using reconsolidation update mechanisms: the contribution of on-line expectancy ratings. AU - Warren,Victor Taylor, AU - Anderson,Kemp M, AU - Kwon,Cliffe, AU - Bosshardt,Lauren, AU - Jovanovic,Tanja, AU - Bradley,Bekh, AU - Norrholm,Seth Davin, Y1 - 2013/10/29/ PY - 2013/08/08/received PY - 2013/09/25/revised PY - 2013/10/21/accepted PY - 2013/11/5/entrez PY - 2013/11/5/pubmed PY - 2015/2/11/medline KW - Fear extinction KW - Fear-potentiated startle KW - Reconsolidation KW - Reinstatement KW - Spontaneous recovery KW - US expectancy SP - 165 EP - 73 JF - Neurobiology of learning and memory JO - Neurobiol Learn Mem VL - 113 N2 - Disruption of the reconsolidation of conditioned fear memories has been suggested as a non-pharmacological means of preventing the return of learned fear in human populations. A reconsolidation update paradigm was developed in which a reconsolidation window is opened by a single isolated retrieval trial of a previously reinforced CS+ which is then followed by Extinction Training within that window. However, follow-up studies in humans using multi-methods fear conditioning indices (e.g., fear-potentiated startle, skin conductance, US-expectancy) have failed to replicate the retrieval+extinction effects. In the present study, we further investigated the retrieval+extinction reconsolidation update paradigm by directly comparing the acquisition, extinction, and return of fear-potentiated startle in the absence or presence of US-expectancy measures (using a trial-by-trial response keypad) with and without retrieval of a previously acquired CS-US association. Participants were fear conditioned to two visual cue CS+'s, one of which was presented as a single, isolated retrieval trial before Extinction Training and one that was extinguished as usual. The results show that the inclusion of US-expectancy measures strengthens the CS-US association to provide enhanced fear conditioning and maintenance of fear memories over the experimental sessions. In addition, in the groups that used on-line US-expectancy measures, the retrieval+extinction procedure reduced reinstatement of fear-potentiated startle to both previously reinforced CS+'s, as compared to the extinction as usual group. SN - 1095-9564 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24183839/Human_fear_extinction_and_return_of_fear_using_reconsolidation_update_mechanisms:_the_contribution_of_on_line_expectancy_ratings_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -