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Urinary cannabinoid disposition in occasional and frequent smokers: is THC-glucuronide in sequential urine samples a marker of recent use in frequent smokers?
Clin Chem. 2014 Feb; 60(2):361-72.CC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

There is extended urinary excretion of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) in abstinent frequent cannabis smokers. We characterized THC, 11-OH-THC, THCCOOH, cannabidiol, cannabinol, THC-glucuronide, and THCCOOH-glucuronide disposition in urine of frequent and occasional cannabis smokers, and we propose a model to predict recent cannabis smoking.

METHODS

Frequent and occasional smokers resided on a closed research unit and smoked one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette ad libitum. Urinary cannabinoids were quantified in each void by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry within 24 h of collection.

RESULTS

No urine samples had measureable THC, 11-OH-THC, cannabidiol, or cannabinol. THCCOOH, THC-glucuronide, and THCCOOH-glucuronide were measurable in all frequent smokers' urine and 60%, 100%, and 100% of occasional smokers' urine samples, respectively. Pre- and postdose maximal concentrations (non- and creatinine normalized) and probability of being positive were significantly higher in frequent smokers' samples. THC-glucuronide concentrations peaked 0.6-7.4 h after smoking; THCCOOH and THCCOOH-glucuronide concentrations were highly variable. At the newly adopted THCCOOH 175-μg/L World Anti-Doping Agency decision limit, only 50% of frequent smokers were positive 0-6 h postdose; no occasional smokers' samples were positive. An absolute %difference of ≥50% between 2 consecutive THC-glucuronide-positive samples with a creatinine-normalized concentration of ≥2 μg/g in the first sample predicted cannabis smoking with efficiencies of 93.1% in frequent and 76.9% in occasional smokers within 6 h of first sample collection.

CONCLUSIONS

These controlled urinary cannabinoid data provide a possible means of identifying recent cannabis intake in cannabis smokers' urine within a short collection time frame after smoking.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, NIDA IRP, Baltimore, MD;No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24185550

Citation

Desrosiers, Nathalie A., et al. "Urinary Cannabinoid Disposition in Occasional and Frequent Smokers: Is THC-glucuronide in Sequential Urine Samples a Marker of Recent Use in Frequent Smokers?" Clinical Chemistry, vol. 60, no. 2, 2014, pp. 361-72.
Desrosiers NA, Lee D, Concheiro-Guisan M, et al. Urinary cannabinoid disposition in occasional and frequent smokers: is THC-glucuronide in sequential urine samples a marker of recent use in frequent smokers? Clin Chem. 2014;60(2):361-72.
Desrosiers, N. A., Lee, D., Concheiro-Guisan, M., Scheidweiler, K. B., Gorelick, D. A., & Huestis, M. A. (2014). Urinary cannabinoid disposition in occasional and frequent smokers: is THC-glucuronide in sequential urine samples a marker of recent use in frequent smokers? Clinical Chemistry, 60(2), 361-72. https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2013.214106
Desrosiers NA, et al. Urinary Cannabinoid Disposition in Occasional and Frequent Smokers: Is THC-glucuronide in Sequential Urine Samples a Marker of Recent Use in Frequent Smokers. Clin Chem. 2014;60(2):361-72. PubMed PMID: 24185550.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Urinary cannabinoid disposition in occasional and frequent smokers: is THC-glucuronide in sequential urine samples a marker of recent use in frequent smokers? AU - Desrosiers,Nathalie A, AU - Lee,Dayong, AU - Concheiro-Guisan,Marta, AU - Scheidweiler,Karl B, AU - Gorelick,David A, AU - Huestis,Marilyn A, Y1 - 2013/11/01/ PY - 2013/11/5/entrez PY - 2013/11/5/pubmed PY - 2014/3/19/medline SP - 361 EP - 72 JF - Clinical chemistry JO - Clin. Chem. VL - 60 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: There is extended urinary excretion of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) in abstinent frequent cannabis smokers. We characterized THC, 11-OH-THC, THCCOOH, cannabidiol, cannabinol, THC-glucuronide, and THCCOOH-glucuronide disposition in urine of frequent and occasional cannabis smokers, and we propose a model to predict recent cannabis smoking. METHODS: Frequent and occasional smokers resided on a closed research unit and smoked one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette ad libitum. Urinary cannabinoids were quantified in each void by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry within 24 h of collection. RESULTS: No urine samples had measureable THC, 11-OH-THC, cannabidiol, or cannabinol. THCCOOH, THC-glucuronide, and THCCOOH-glucuronide were measurable in all frequent smokers' urine and 60%, 100%, and 100% of occasional smokers' urine samples, respectively. Pre- and postdose maximal concentrations (non- and creatinine normalized) and probability of being positive were significantly higher in frequent smokers' samples. THC-glucuronide concentrations peaked 0.6-7.4 h after smoking; THCCOOH and THCCOOH-glucuronide concentrations were highly variable. At the newly adopted THCCOOH 175-μg/L World Anti-Doping Agency decision limit, only 50% of frequent smokers were positive 0-6 h postdose; no occasional smokers' samples were positive. An absolute %difference of ≥50% between 2 consecutive THC-glucuronide-positive samples with a creatinine-normalized concentration of ≥2 μg/g in the first sample predicted cannabis smoking with efficiencies of 93.1% in frequent and 76.9% in occasional smokers within 6 h of first sample collection. CONCLUSIONS: These controlled urinary cannabinoid data provide a possible means of identifying recent cannabis intake in cannabis smokers' urine within a short collection time frame after smoking. SN - 1530-8561 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24185550/Urinary_cannabinoid_disposition_in_occasional_and_frequent_smokers:_is_THC_glucuronide_in_sequential_urine_samples_a_marker_of_recent_use_in_frequent_smokers L2 - http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=24185550 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -