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Travel and non-travel associated rabies post exposure treatment in New South Wales residents, Australia, 2007-2011: a cross-sectional analysis.
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2013 Nov-Dec; 11(6):421-6.TM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Australian Bat Lyssavirus is endemic in Australian bats. More Australians are travelling to rabies (Lyssavirus 1) endemic countries. The nature and frequency of lyssavirus exposures and characteristics of New South Wales (NSW) residents exposed have not previously been described.

METHOD

Access to free rabies post-exposure treatment (PET) can only be arranged through Public Health Units in NSW. Details of people receiving PET after potential exposures to rabies or ABLV from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2011 were extracted from an NSW Ministry of Health web-based database and analysed to better understand lyssavirus exposure epidemiology.

RESULTS

Of 1195 people receiving PET, 415 exposures were in Australia and 780 abroad; 78.3% occurring in Southeast Asia, mainly Indonesia (47.6%) where most were on the island of Bali (95.2%). PET use increased substantially for domestic and international exposures. In Australia, most bat exposures were to members of the public (76.0%), rather than to people who work with bats professionally or as volunteers, with 54.1% due to bat rescue attempts. Injuries abroad were mainly from monkeys (49.4%) and from dogs (35.8%). Only 4.0% of international travellers were vaccinated prior to their exposure.

CONCLUSIONS

Increasing rates of PET in travelling and non-travelling Australians emphasise the need for more effective communication about appropriate animal avoidance and the measures required if exposed. Opportunities for increasing pre-exposure treatment amongst individuals likely to be exposed should be promoted.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Postbus 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, Netherlands. Electronic address: Katina.kardamanidis@rivm.nl.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24211239

Citation

Kardamanidis, K, et al. "Travel and Non-travel Associated Rabies Post Exposure Treatment in New South Wales Residents, Australia, 2007-2011: a Cross-sectional Analysis." Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, vol. 11, no. 6, 2013, pp. 421-6.
Kardamanidis K, Cashman P, Durrheim DN. Travel and non-travel associated rabies post exposure treatment in New South Wales residents, Australia, 2007-2011: a cross-sectional analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2013;11(6):421-6.
Kardamanidis, K., Cashman, P., & Durrheim, D. N. (2013). Travel and non-travel associated rabies post exposure treatment in New South Wales residents, Australia, 2007-2011: a cross-sectional analysis. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 11(6), 421-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2013.09.008
Kardamanidis K, Cashman P, Durrheim DN. Travel and Non-travel Associated Rabies Post Exposure Treatment in New South Wales Residents, Australia, 2007-2011: a Cross-sectional Analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2013 Nov-Dec;11(6):421-6. PubMed PMID: 24211239.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Travel and non-travel associated rabies post exposure treatment in New South Wales residents, Australia, 2007-2011: a cross-sectional analysis. AU - Kardamanidis,K, AU - Cashman,P, AU - Durrheim,D N, Y1 - 2013/10/25/ PY - 2013/07/17/received PY - 2013/09/24/revised PY - 2013/09/27/accepted PY - 2013/11/12/entrez PY - 2013/11/12/pubmed PY - 2014/9/4/medline KW - Australian bat lyssavirus KW - Bat handlers KW - Post-exposure prophylaxis KW - Rabies KW - Travellers SP - 421 EP - 6 JF - Travel medicine and infectious disease JO - Travel Med Infect Dis VL - 11 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Australian Bat Lyssavirus is endemic in Australian bats. More Australians are travelling to rabies (Lyssavirus 1) endemic countries. The nature and frequency of lyssavirus exposures and characteristics of New South Wales (NSW) residents exposed have not previously been described. METHOD: Access to free rabies post-exposure treatment (PET) can only be arranged through Public Health Units in NSW. Details of people receiving PET after potential exposures to rabies or ABLV from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2011 were extracted from an NSW Ministry of Health web-based database and analysed to better understand lyssavirus exposure epidemiology. RESULTS: Of 1195 people receiving PET, 415 exposures were in Australia and 780 abroad; 78.3% occurring in Southeast Asia, mainly Indonesia (47.6%) where most were on the island of Bali (95.2%). PET use increased substantially for domestic and international exposures. In Australia, most bat exposures were to members of the public (76.0%), rather than to people who work with bats professionally or as volunteers, with 54.1% due to bat rescue attempts. Injuries abroad were mainly from monkeys (49.4%) and from dogs (35.8%). Only 4.0% of international travellers were vaccinated prior to their exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing rates of PET in travelling and non-travelling Australians emphasise the need for more effective communication about appropriate animal avoidance and the measures required if exposed. Opportunities for increasing pre-exposure treatment amongst individuals likely to be exposed should be promoted. SN - 1873-0442 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24211239/Travel_and_non_travel_associated_rabies_post_exposure_treatment_in_New_South_Wales_residents_Australia_2007_2011:_a_cross_sectional_analysis_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1477-8939(13)00174-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -