Dietary fiber intake reduces risk for colorectal adenoma: a meta-analysis.Gastroenterology 2014; 146(3):689-699.e6G
BACKGROUND & AIMS
Reports on the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA), the precursor of colorectal cancer, have been inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies to analyze this association.
We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to identify relevant studies published through July 2013. A random-effects model was used to estimate summary relative risks (SRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between fiber intake and CRA risk. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed using the Cochran Q and I(2) statistics.
Our meta-analysis included 20 studies involving 10,948 subjects with CRA. The SRRs of CRA for total dietary fiber were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.63-0.83) in a high- vs low-intake analysis and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.87-0.95) per 10-g/day increase in fiber intake in a dose-response model. Subgroup analyses indicated a significant inverse association between total fiber intake and CRA risk in case-control studies (SRR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.77), but not in cohort studies (SRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.76-1.10). The SRRs of CRA were 0.84 for fruit fiber (95% CI, 0.76-0.94; n = 6 studies), 0.93 for vegetable fiber (95% CI, 0.84-1.04; n = 6 studies), and 0.76 for cereal fiber (95% CI, 0.62-0.92; n = 9 studies) in high- vs low-intake analyses.
Our findings support the hypothesis that high dietary fiber intake is associated inversely with CRA risk. Further studies with prospective designs that use validated questionnaires and control for important confounders are warranted.