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Preference for high status predicts implicit outgroup bias among children from low-status groups.
Dev Psychol 2014; 50(4):1081-90DP

Abstract

Whereas members of high-status racial groups show ingroup preference when attitudes are measured implicitly, members of low-status racial groups--both adults and children--typically show no bias, potentially reflecting awareness of the ingroup's low status. We hypothesized that when status differences are especially pronounced, children from low-status groups would show an implicit outgroup bias, the strength of which might relate to attitudes toward status. We tested these predictions among 6- to 11-year-old Black and Coloured (i.e., multiracial) children from South Africa, a country marked by extreme status differentials among racial groups. As a measure of implicit intergroup bias, children (N = 78) completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT), a speeded categorization task that assesses the relative strength of association between 2 target groups (in the present study, either Whites vs. Blacks or Whites vs. Coloureds) and positive vs. negative evaluation. Children also completed explicit (i.e., self-report) measures of attitudes toward racial groups as well as toward rich and poor people (a measure of attitudes toward status). Both groups of children showed an implicit outgroup-favoring (i.e., pro-White) bias, suggesting that children were sensitive to the extent of status differences. The only instance in which implicit pro-White bias did not emerge involved Black children's evaluations of Whites vs. Coloureds, both higher-status outgroups. Explicit preference for high status predicted implicit pro-White bias, particularly when the IAT contrasted 2 outgroups. The impact of status on the development of implicit and explicit intergroup bias is discussed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, Yale University.Department of Psychology, Princeton University.Department of Psychology, Yale University.Department of Psychology, University of the Western Cape.Department of Psychology, Yale University.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24219317

Citation

Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa, et al. "Preference for High Status Predicts Implicit Outgroup Bias Among Children From Low-status Groups." Developmental Psychology, vol. 50, no. 4, 2014, pp. 1081-90.
Newheiser AK, Dunham Y, Merrill A, et al. Preference for high status predicts implicit outgroup bias among children from low-status groups. Dev Psychol. 2014;50(4):1081-90.
Newheiser, A. K., Dunham, Y., Merrill, A., Hoosain, L., & Olson, K. R. (2014). Preference for high status predicts implicit outgroup bias among children from low-status groups. Developmental Psychology, 50(4), pp. 1081-90. doi:10.1037/a0035054.
Newheiser AK, et al. Preference for High Status Predicts Implicit Outgroup Bias Among Children From Low-status Groups. Dev Psychol. 2014;50(4):1081-90. PubMed PMID: 24219317.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Preference for high status predicts implicit outgroup bias among children from low-status groups. AU - Newheiser,Anna-Kaisa, AU - Dunham,Yarrow, AU - Merrill,Anna, AU - Hoosain,Leah, AU - Olson,Kristina R, Y1 - 2013/11/11/ PY - 2013/11/14/entrez PY - 2013/11/14/pubmed PY - 2014/12/15/medline SP - 1081 EP - 90 JF - Developmental psychology JO - Dev Psychol VL - 50 IS - 4 N2 - Whereas members of high-status racial groups show ingroup preference when attitudes are measured implicitly, members of low-status racial groups--both adults and children--typically show no bias, potentially reflecting awareness of the ingroup's low status. We hypothesized that when status differences are especially pronounced, children from low-status groups would show an implicit outgroup bias, the strength of which might relate to attitudes toward status. We tested these predictions among 6- to 11-year-old Black and Coloured (i.e., multiracial) children from South Africa, a country marked by extreme status differentials among racial groups. As a measure of implicit intergroup bias, children (N = 78) completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT), a speeded categorization task that assesses the relative strength of association between 2 target groups (in the present study, either Whites vs. Blacks or Whites vs. Coloureds) and positive vs. negative evaluation. Children also completed explicit (i.e., self-report) measures of attitudes toward racial groups as well as toward rich and poor people (a measure of attitudes toward status). Both groups of children showed an implicit outgroup-favoring (i.e., pro-White) bias, suggesting that children were sensitive to the extent of status differences. The only instance in which implicit pro-White bias did not emerge involved Black children's evaluations of Whites vs. Coloureds, both higher-status outgroups. Explicit preference for high status predicted implicit pro-White bias, particularly when the IAT contrasted 2 outgroups. The impact of status on the development of implicit and explicit intergroup bias is discussed. SN - 1939-0599 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24219317/Preference_for_high_status_predicts_implicit_outgroup_bias_among_children_from_low_status_groups_ L2 - http://content.apa.org/journals/dev/50/4/1081 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -