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Sex-dependent psychoneuroendocrine effects of THC and MDMA in an animal model of adolescent drug consumption.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e78386.Plos

Abstract

Ecstasy is a drug that is usually consumed by young people at the weekends and frequently, in combination with cannabis. In the present study we have investigated the long-term effects of administering increasing doses of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC; 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg; i.p.] from postnatal day (pnd) 28 to 45, alone and/or in conjunction with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA; two daily doses of 10 mg/kg every 5 days; s.c.] from pnd 30 to 45, in both male and female Wistar rats. When tested one day after the end of the pharmacological treatment (pnd 46), MDMA administration induced a reduction in directed exploration in the holeboard test and an increase in open-arm exploration in an elevated plus maze. In the long-term, cognitive functions in the novel object test were seen to be disrupted by THC administration to female but not male rats. In the prepulse inhibition test, MDMA-treated animals showed a decrease in prepulse inhibition at the most intense prepulse studied (80 dB), whereas in combination with THC it induced a similar decrease at 75 dB. THC decreased hippocampal Arc expression in both sexes, while in the frontal cortex this reduction was only evident in females. MDMA induced a reduction in ERK1/2 immunoreactivity in the frontal cortex of male but not female animals, and THC decreased prepro-orexin mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of males, although this effect was prevented when the animals also received MDMA. The results presented indicate that adolescent exposure to THC and/or MDMA induces long-term, sex-dependent psychophysiological alterations and they reveal functional interactions between the two drugs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Departamento de Fisiología (Fisiología Animal II), Facultad de Biología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain ; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24223797

Citation

Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro, et al. "Sex-dependent Psychoneuroendocrine Effects of THC and MDMA in an Animal Model of Adolescent Drug Consumption." PloS One, vol. 8, no. 11, 2013, pp. e78386.
Llorente-Berzal A, Puighermanal E, Burokas A, et al. Sex-dependent psychoneuroendocrine effects of THC and MDMA in an animal model of adolescent drug consumption. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(11):e78386.
Llorente-Berzal, A., Puighermanal, E., Burokas, A., Ozaita, A., Maldonado, R., Marco, E. M., & Viveros, M. P. (2013). Sex-dependent psychoneuroendocrine effects of THC and MDMA in an animal model of adolescent drug consumption. PloS One, 8(11), e78386. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078386
Llorente-Berzal A, et al. Sex-dependent Psychoneuroendocrine Effects of THC and MDMA in an Animal Model of Adolescent Drug Consumption. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(11):e78386. PubMed PMID: 24223797.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Sex-dependent psychoneuroendocrine effects of THC and MDMA in an animal model of adolescent drug consumption. AU - Llorente-Berzal,Alvaro, AU - Puighermanal,Emma, AU - Burokas,Aurelijus, AU - Ozaita,Andrés, AU - Maldonado,Rafael, AU - Marco,Eva M, AU - Viveros,Maria-Paz, Y1 - 2013/11/04/ PY - 2013/07/02/received PY - 2013/09/18/accepted PY - 2013/11/14/entrez PY - 2013/11/14/pubmed PY - 2014/8/13/medline SP - e78386 EP - e78386 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 8 IS - 11 N2 - Ecstasy is a drug that is usually consumed by young people at the weekends and frequently, in combination with cannabis. In the present study we have investigated the long-term effects of administering increasing doses of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC; 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg; i.p.] from postnatal day (pnd) 28 to 45, alone and/or in conjunction with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA; two daily doses of 10 mg/kg every 5 days; s.c.] from pnd 30 to 45, in both male and female Wistar rats. When tested one day after the end of the pharmacological treatment (pnd 46), MDMA administration induced a reduction in directed exploration in the holeboard test and an increase in open-arm exploration in an elevated plus maze. In the long-term, cognitive functions in the novel object test were seen to be disrupted by THC administration to female but not male rats. In the prepulse inhibition test, MDMA-treated animals showed a decrease in prepulse inhibition at the most intense prepulse studied (80 dB), whereas in combination with THC it induced a similar decrease at 75 dB. THC decreased hippocampal Arc expression in both sexes, while in the frontal cortex this reduction was only evident in females. MDMA induced a reduction in ERK1/2 immunoreactivity in the frontal cortex of male but not female animals, and THC decreased prepro-orexin mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of males, although this effect was prevented when the animals also received MDMA. The results presented indicate that adolescent exposure to THC and/or MDMA induces long-term, sex-dependent psychophysiological alterations and they reveal functional interactions between the two drugs. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24223797/Sex_dependent_psychoneuroendocrine_effects_of_THC_and_MDMA_in_an_animal_model_of_adolescent_drug_consumption_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078386 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -