Efficient removal of endosulfan from aqueous solution by UV-C/peroxides: a comparative study.J Hazard Mater. 2013 Dec 15; 263 Pt 2:584-92.JH
This study explored the efficiency of UV-C-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), i.e., UV/S2O8(2-), UV/HSO5(-), and UV/H2O2 for the degradation of endosulfan, an organochlorine insecticide and an emerging water pollutant. A significant removal, 91%, 86%, and 64%, of endosulfan, at an initial concentration of 2.45 μM and UV fluence of 480 mJ/cm(2), was achieved by UV/S2O8(2-), UV/HSO5(-), and UV/H2O2 processes, respectively, at a [peroxide]0/[endosulfan]0 molar ratio of 20. The efficiency of these processes was, however, inhibited in the presence of radical scavengers, such as alcohols (e.g., tertiary butyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol) and natural organic matter (NOM). The inhibition was also influenced by common inorganic anions in the order of nitrite > bicarbonate > chloride > nitrate ≈ sulfate. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constant decreased while the degradation rate increased with increasing initial concentration of the target contaminant. The degradation mechanism of endosulfan by the AOPs was evaluated revealing the main by-product as endosulfan ether. Results of this study suggest that UV-C-based AOPs are potential methods for the removal of pesticides, such as endosulfan and its by-products, from contaminated water.