Heterochromatin differentiation and phylogenetic relationship of the A genomes in diploid and polyploid wheats.Theor Appl Genet. 1989 Jan; 77(1):84-94.TA
Heterochromatin differentiation, including band size, sites, and Giemsa staining intensity, was analyzed by the HKG (HCl-KOH-Giemsa) banding technique in the A genomes of 21 diploid (Triticum urartu, T. boeoticum and T. monococcum), 13 tetraploid (T. araraticum, T. timopheevi, T. dicoccoides and T. turgidum var. Dicoccon, Polonicum), and 7 cultivars of hexaploid (T. aestivum) wheats from different germplasm collections. Among wild and cultivated diploid taxa, heterochromatin was located mainly at centromeric regions, but the size and staining intensity were distinct and some accessions' genomes had interstitial and telomeric bands. Among wild and cultivated polyploid wheats, heterochromatin exhibited bifurcated differentiation. Heterochromatinization occurred in chromosomes 4A(t) and 7A(t) and in smaller amounts in 2A(t), 3A(t), 5A(t), and 6A(t) within the genomes of the tetraploid Timopheevi group (T. araraticum, and T. timopheevi) and vice versa within those of the Emmer group (T. dicoccoides and T. turgidum). Similar divergence patterns occurred among chromosome 4A(a) and 7A(a) of cultivars of hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum). These dynamic processes could be related to geographic distribution and to natural and artifical selection. Comparison of the A genomes of diploid wheats with those of polyploid wheats shows that the A genomes in existing diploid wheats could not be the direct donors of those in polyploid wheats, but that the extant taxa of diploids and polyploids probably have a common origin and share a common A-genomelike ancestor.