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Prevalence of chronic kidney disease across levels of glycemia among adults in Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China.
BMC Nephrol. 2013 Nov 16; 14:253.BN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Few population-based studies have examined the relationship between glycemic status and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in China. We examined the prevalence of CKD across categories of glycemia [diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] ≥ 126 mg/dL), prediabetes (FPG 100-126 mg/dL) and normal glycemia (FPG <100 mg/dL)] among Chinese adults and assessed the relative contribution of dysglycemia (prediabetes and/or diabetes) to the burden of CKD.

METHODS

5,584 Chinese adults aged 20-79 years were selected from the Pudong New Area of Shanghai through a multistage random sampling. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics, anthropometry and blood pressure were measured. Biochemical assays included FPG, serum creatinine and lipids, urinary creatinine and albumin. Prevalence of albuminuria [urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥ 30 mg/g], decreased kidney function and CKD (either decreased kidney function or albuminuria) across levels of glycemia were estimated.

RESULTS

The prevalence of albuminuria, decreased kidney function and CKD each increased with higher glycemic levels (P < 0.001). Based on the MDRD Study equation, the unadjusted CKD prevalence was 30.9%, 28.5%, 14.1% and 9.2% in those with diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes and normoglycemia, respectively. The corresponding age-, gender- and hypertension-adjusted CKD prevalence were 25.8%, 25.0%, 12.3% and 9.1%, respectively. In a multivariable analysis, the factors associated with CKD were hypertension (Odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-2.03), dysglycemia (OR 1.65, 95% CI: 1.39-1.95), female gender (OR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.25-1.75), higher triglycerides (OR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.08-1.20 per mmol/L), higher body mass index (OR 1.08, 95% CI: 1.05-1.10 per kg/m2), and older age (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01 -1.03 per year). The population attributable risks (PARs) associated with diabetes, prediabetes, dysglycemia (diabetes and prediabetes) and hypertension were 18.4%, 19.7%, 30.3% and 44.5% for CKD as defined by the MDRD study equation, and 15.8%, 24.4%, 29.2% and 10.0% with the CKD-EPI equation. Estimates of prevalence and ORs of the relative contribution of various risk factors to CKD obtained with the CKD-EPI equation were similar.

CONCLUSIONS

As much as 30% of the CKD burden may be associated with dysglycemia among Chinese adults, independent of age, gender and hypertension status. Prevention and control of diabetes and prediabetes should be a high priority in reducing the CKD burden in China.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Pudong New Area Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 3039 Zhang Yang Road, Shanghai 200136, China. sunqiao163@hotmail.com.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24238578

Citation

Zhou, Yi, et al. "Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease Across Levels of Glycemia Among Adults in Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China." BMC Nephrology, vol. 14, 2013, p. 253.
Zhou Y, Echouffo-Tcheugui JB, Gu JJ, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease across levels of glycemia among adults in Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China. BMC Nephrol. 2013;14:253.
Zhou, Y., Echouffo-Tcheugui, J. B., Gu, J. J., Ruan, X. N., Zhao, G. M., Xu, W. H., Yang, L. M., Zhang, H., Qiu, H., Narayan, K. M., & Sun, Q. (2013). Prevalence of chronic kidney disease across levels of glycemia among adults in Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China. BMC Nephrology, 14, 253. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2369-14-253
Zhou Y, et al. Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease Across Levels of Glycemia Among Adults in Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China. BMC Nephrol. 2013 Nov 16;14:253. PubMed PMID: 24238578.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prevalence of chronic kidney disease across levels of glycemia among adults in Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China. AU - Zhou,Yi, AU - Echouffo-Tcheugui,Justin B, AU - Gu,Jian-jun, AU - Ruan,Xiao-nan, AU - Zhao,Gen-ming, AU - Xu,Wang-hong, AU - Yang,Li-ming, AU - Zhang,Hong, AU - Qiu,Hua, AU - Narayan,K M Venkat, AU - Sun,Qiao, Y1 - 2013/11/16/ PY - 2013/08/17/received PY - 2013/11/12/accepted PY - 2013/11/19/entrez PY - 2013/11/19/pubmed PY - 2014/4/4/medline SP - 253 EP - 253 JF - BMC nephrology JO - BMC Nephrol VL - 14 N2 - BACKGROUND: Few population-based studies have examined the relationship between glycemic status and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in China. We examined the prevalence of CKD across categories of glycemia [diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] ≥ 126 mg/dL), prediabetes (FPG 100-126 mg/dL) and normal glycemia (FPG <100 mg/dL)] among Chinese adults and assessed the relative contribution of dysglycemia (prediabetes and/or diabetes) to the burden of CKD. METHODS: 5,584 Chinese adults aged 20-79 years were selected from the Pudong New Area of Shanghai through a multistage random sampling. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics, anthropometry and blood pressure were measured. Biochemical assays included FPG, serum creatinine and lipids, urinary creatinine and albumin. Prevalence of albuminuria [urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥ 30 mg/g], decreased kidney function and CKD (either decreased kidney function or albuminuria) across levels of glycemia were estimated. RESULTS: The prevalence of albuminuria, decreased kidney function and CKD each increased with higher glycemic levels (P < 0.001). Based on the MDRD Study equation, the unadjusted CKD prevalence was 30.9%, 28.5%, 14.1% and 9.2% in those with diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes and normoglycemia, respectively. The corresponding age-, gender- and hypertension-adjusted CKD prevalence were 25.8%, 25.0%, 12.3% and 9.1%, respectively. In a multivariable analysis, the factors associated with CKD were hypertension (Odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-2.03), dysglycemia (OR 1.65, 95% CI: 1.39-1.95), female gender (OR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.25-1.75), higher triglycerides (OR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.08-1.20 per mmol/L), higher body mass index (OR 1.08, 95% CI: 1.05-1.10 per kg/m2), and older age (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01 -1.03 per year). The population attributable risks (PARs) associated with diabetes, prediabetes, dysglycemia (diabetes and prediabetes) and hypertension were 18.4%, 19.7%, 30.3% and 44.5% for CKD as defined by the MDRD study equation, and 15.8%, 24.4%, 29.2% and 10.0% with the CKD-EPI equation. Estimates of prevalence and ORs of the relative contribution of various risk factors to CKD obtained with the CKD-EPI equation were similar. CONCLUSIONS: As much as 30% of the CKD burden may be associated with dysglycemia among Chinese adults, independent of age, gender and hypertension status. Prevention and control of diabetes and prediabetes should be a high priority in reducing the CKD burden in China. SN - 1471-2369 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24238578/Prevalence_of_chronic_kidney_disease_across_levels_of_glycemia_among_adults_in_Pudong_New_Area_Shanghai_China_ L2 - https://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2369/14/253 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -