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Antioxidant supplements and mortality.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW

Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging.

RECENT FINDINGS

Older observational studies and some randomized clinical trials with high risks of systematic errors ('bias') have suggested that antioxidant supplements may improve health and prolong life. A number of randomized clinical trials with adequate methodologies observed neutral or negative results of antioxidant supplements. Recently completed large randomized clinical trials with low risks of bias and systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials taking systematic errors ('bias') and risks of random errors ('play of chance') into account have shown that antioxidant supplements do not seem to prevent cancer, cardiovascular diseases, or death. Even more, beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E may increase mortality. Some recent large observational studies now support these findings. According to recent dietary guidelines, there is no evidence to support the use of antioxidant supplements in the primary prevention of chronic diseases or mortality.

SUMMARY

Antioxidant supplements do not possess preventive effects and may be harmful with unwanted consequences to our health, especially in well-nourished populations. The optimal source of antioxidants seems to come from our diet, not from antioxidant supplements in pills or tablets.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    aThe Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group, Copenhagen Trial Unit bThe Copenhagen Trial Unit, Centre for Clinical Intervention Research, Department 7812, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Antioxidants
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Chronic Disease
    Dietary Supplements
    Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
    Humans
    Meta-Analysis as Topic
    Neoplasms
    Observational Studies as Topic
    Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
    Vitamin A
    Vitamin E
    beta Carotene

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    24241129

    Citation

    Bjelakovic, Goran, et al. "Antioxidant Supplements and Mortality." Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, vol. 17, no. 1, 2014, pp. 40-4.
    Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud C. Antioxidant supplements and mortality. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014;17(1):40-4.
    Bjelakovic, G., Nikolova, D., & Gluud, C. (2014). Antioxidant supplements and mortality. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 17(1), pp. 40-4. doi:10.1097/MCO.0000000000000009.
    Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud C. Antioxidant Supplements and Mortality. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014;17(1):40-4. PubMed PMID: 24241129.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Antioxidant supplements and mortality. AU - Bjelakovic,Goran, AU - Nikolova,Dimitrinka, AU - Gluud,Christian, PY - 2013/11/19/entrez PY - 2013/11/19/pubmed PY - 2014/8/2/medline SP - 40 EP - 4 JF - Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care JO - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care VL - 17 IS - 1 N2 - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging. RECENT FINDINGS: Older observational studies and some randomized clinical trials with high risks of systematic errors ('bias') have suggested that antioxidant supplements may improve health and prolong life. A number of randomized clinical trials with adequate methodologies observed neutral or negative results of antioxidant supplements. Recently completed large randomized clinical trials with low risks of bias and systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials taking systematic errors ('bias') and risks of random errors ('play of chance') into account have shown that antioxidant supplements do not seem to prevent cancer, cardiovascular diseases, or death. Even more, beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E may increase mortality. Some recent large observational studies now support these findings. According to recent dietary guidelines, there is no evidence to support the use of antioxidant supplements in the primary prevention of chronic diseases or mortality. SUMMARY: Antioxidant supplements do not possess preventive effects and may be harmful with unwanted consequences to our health, especially in well-nourished populations. The optimal source of antioxidants seems to come from our diet, not from antioxidant supplements in pills or tablets. SN - 1473-6519 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24241129/full_citation L2 - http://Insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=24241129 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -