Widespread occurrence of bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers, p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens), benzophenone type-UV filters, triclosan, and triclocarban in human urine from Athens, Greece.Sci Total Environ. 2014 Feb 01; 470-471:1243-9.ST
Biomonitoring of human exposure to bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers (BADGEs; resin coating for food cans), p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens; preservatives), benzophenone-type UV filters (BP-UV filters; sunscreen agents), triclosan (TCS; antimicrobials), and triclocarban (TCC; antimicrobials) has been investigated in western European countries and North America. Nevertheless, little is known about the exposure of Greek populations to these environmental chemicals. In this study, 100 urine samples collected from Athens, Greece, were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of total concentrations of five derivatives of BADGEs, six parabens and their metabolite (ethyl-protocatechuate), five derivatives of BP-UV filters, TCS, and TCC. Urinary concentrations of BADGEs, parabens, ethyl-protocatechuate, BP-UV filters, TCS and TCC (on a volume basis) ranged 0.3-20.9 (geometric mean: 0.9), 1.6-1010 (24.2), <2-71.0 (2.1), 0.5-1120 (4.4), <0.5-2580 (8.0) and <0.5-1.9 (0.6) ng/mL, respectively. All 19 target chemicals were found in urine, and the highest detection rates were observed for methyl paraben (100%), bisphenol A bis (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (90%), ethyl paraben (87%), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (78%), propyl paraben (72%), and TCS (71%). Estimated daily intakes (EDIurine), calculated on the basis of the measured urinary concentrations, ranged from 0.023 μg/kg bw/day for Σ5BADGEs to 31.4 μg/kg bw/day for Σ6Parabens.