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Role of diet and nutritional management in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which causes an increased risk of cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular complications. With the worldwide growing incidence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy dietary pattern, NAFLD has currently been recognized as a major health burden. Dietary patterns and nutrients are the important contributors to the development, progression, and treatment of NAFLD and associated metabolic comorbidities. Generally, hypercaloric diet, especially rich in trans/saturated fat and cholesterol, and fructose-sweetened beverages seem to increase visceral adiposity and stimulate hepatic lipid accumulation and progression into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, whereas reducing caloric intake, increasing soy protein and whey consumption, and supplement of monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and probiotics have preventive and therapeutic effects. In addition, choline, fiber, coffee, green tea, and light alcohol drinking might be protective factors for NAFLD. Based on available data, at least 3-5% of weight loss, achieved by hypocaloric diet alone or in conjunction with exercise and behavioral modification, generally reduces hepatic steatosis, and up to 10% weight loss may be needed to improve hepatic necroinflammation. A sustained adherence to diet rather than the actual diet type is a major predictor of successful weight loss. Moreover, a healthy diet has benefits beyond weight reduction on NAFLD patients whether obese or of normal weight. Therefore, nutrition serves as a major route of prevention and treatment of NAFLD, and patients with NAFLD should have an individualized diet recommendation.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Gastroenterology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children's Digestion and Nutrition, Shanghai, China.

    Source

    Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology 28 Suppl 4: 2013 Dec pg 81-7

    MeSH

    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
    Diet, High-Fat
    Diet, Reducing
    Disease Progression
    Energy Intake
    Fatty Liver
    Humans
    Life Style
    Liver Cirrhosis
    Metabolic Syndrome
    Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    Obesity
    Risk
    Weight Loss

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    24251710

    Citation

    Fan, Jian-Gao, and Hai-Xia Cao. "Role of Diet and Nutritional Management in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease." Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 28 Suppl 4, 2013, pp. 81-7.
    Fan JG, Cao HX. Role of diet and nutritional management in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;28 Suppl 4:81-7.
    Fan, J. G., & Cao, H. X. (2013). Role of diet and nutritional management in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 28 Suppl 4, pp. 81-7. doi:10.1111/jgh.12244.
    Fan JG, Cao HX. Role of Diet and Nutritional Management in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;28 Suppl 4:81-7. PubMed PMID: 24251710.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Role of diet and nutritional management in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. AU - Fan,Jian-Gao, AU - Cao,Hai-Xia, PY - 2013/03/27/accepted PY - 2013/11/21/entrez PY - 2013/11/28/pubmed PY - 2014/10/3/medline KW - NAFLD/NASH KW - diet KW - fatty liver KW - nutrition KW - obesity SP - 81 EP - 7 JF - Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology JO - J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. VL - 28 Suppl 4 N2 - Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which causes an increased risk of cirrhosis, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular complications. With the worldwide growing incidence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy dietary pattern, NAFLD has currently been recognized as a major health burden. Dietary patterns and nutrients are the important contributors to the development, progression, and treatment of NAFLD and associated metabolic comorbidities. Generally, hypercaloric diet, especially rich in trans/saturated fat and cholesterol, and fructose-sweetened beverages seem to increase visceral adiposity and stimulate hepatic lipid accumulation and progression into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, whereas reducing caloric intake, increasing soy protein and whey consumption, and supplement of monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and probiotics have preventive and therapeutic effects. In addition, choline, fiber, coffee, green tea, and light alcohol drinking might be protective factors for NAFLD. Based on available data, at least 3-5% of weight loss, achieved by hypocaloric diet alone or in conjunction with exercise and behavioral modification, generally reduces hepatic steatosis, and up to 10% weight loss may be needed to improve hepatic necroinflammation. A sustained adherence to diet rather than the actual diet type is a major predictor of successful weight loss. Moreover, a healthy diet has benefits beyond weight reduction on NAFLD patients whether obese or of normal weight. Therefore, nutrition serves as a major route of prevention and treatment of NAFLD, and patients with NAFLD should have an individualized diet recommendation. SN - 1440-1746 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24251710/Role_of_diet_and_nutritional_management_in_non_alcoholic_fatty_liver_disease_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/jgh.12244 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -