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Intake of fruit, berries, and vegetables and risk of type 2 diabetes in Finnish men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Feb; 99(2):328-33.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Although higher intakes of fruit, berries, and vegetables (FBV) have been associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in some observational studies, the evidence is limited and inconclusive.

OBJECTIVE

We assessed the relation of FBV intake and T2D incidence in Finnish men.

DESIGN

We studied 2332 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study who were aged 42-60 y and free of T2D or impaired fasting glucose at baseline in 1984-1989. Food intake was assessed with 4-d food recording. T2D was assessed by using self-administered questionnaires, a fasting blood glucose measurement, a 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test, and record linkage to a reimbursement register on diabetes medication expenses. In the Cox proportional hazards model, HRs for T2D were computed for the highest compared with lowest quartiles of FBV intake adjusted for age, examination year, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, smoking, education, physical activity, family history of diabetes, and energy and alcohol intakes.

RESULTS

During the mean follow-up time of 19.3 y, 432 new cases of T2D occurred. For the total FBV intake (with the exclusion of potatoes and fruit and berry juices), the extreme-quartile multivariable-adjusted HR for T2D was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.02; P-trend = 0.15). In the analysis for FBV components, berries had a corresponding HR of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.88; P-trend = 0.003), whereas no significant associations were shown for fruit, fruit and berry juices, and vegetables.

CONCLUSION

Fruit and vegetables, particularly berries, may reduce risk of T2D in men.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24257723

Citation

Mursu, Jaakko, et al. "Intake of Fruit, Berries, and Vegetables and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Finnish Men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 99, no. 2, 2014, pp. 328-33.
Mursu J, Virtanen JK, Tuomainen TP, et al. Intake of fruit, berries, and vegetables and risk of type 2 diabetes in Finnish men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99(2):328-33.
Mursu, J., Virtanen, J. K., Tuomainen, T. P., Nurmi, T., & Voutilainen, S. (2014). Intake of fruit, berries, and vegetables and risk of type 2 diabetes in Finnish men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 99(2), 328-33. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.069641
Mursu J, et al. Intake of Fruit, Berries, and Vegetables and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Finnish Men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99(2):328-33. PubMed PMID: 24257723.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Intake of fruit, berries, and vegetables and risk of type 2 diabetes in Finnish men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. AU - Mursu,Jaakko, AU - Virtanen,Jyrki K, AU - Tuomainen,Tomi-Pekka, AU - Nurmi,Tarja, AU - Voutilainen,Sari, Y1 - 2013/11/20/ PY - 2013/11/22/entrez PY - 2013/11/22/pubmed PY - 2014/4/15/medline SP - 328 EP - 33 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 99 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Although higher intakes of fruit, berries, and vegetables (FBV) have been associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in some observational studies, the evidence is limited and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relation of FBV intake and T2D incidence in Finnish men. DESIGN: We studied 2332 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study who were aged 42-60 y and free of T2D or impaired fasting glucose at baseline in 1984-1989. Food intake was assessed with 4-d food recording. T2D was assessed by using self-administered questionnaires, a fasting blood glucose measurement, a 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test, and record linkage to a reimbursement register on diabetes medication expenses. In the Cox proportional hazards model, HRs for T2D were computed for the highest compared with lowest quartiles of FBV intake adjusted for age, examination year, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, smoking, education, physical activity, family history of diabetes, and energy and alcohol intakes. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up time of 19.3 y, 432 new cases of T2D occurred. For the total FBV intake (with the exclusion of potatoes and fruit and berry juices), the extreme-quartile multivariable-adjusted HR for T2D was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.02; P-trend = 0.15). In the analysis for FBV components, berries had a corresponding HR of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.88; P-trend = 0.003), whereas no significant associations were shown for fruit, fruit and berry juices, and vegetables. CONCLUSION: Fruit and vegetables, particularly berries, may reduce risk of T2D in men. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24257723/Intake_of_fruit_berries_and_vegetables_and_risk_of_type_2_diabetes_in_Finnish_men:_the_Kuopio_Ischaemic_Heart_Disease_Risk_Factor_Study_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.113.069641 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -