Bedaquiline: a novel diarylquinoline for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.Ann Pharmacother 2014; 48(1):107-15AP
To review the chemistry, pharmacology, microbiology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, safety, dosage, and administration of bedaquiline, a novel oral diarylquinoline antimycobacterial agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adults with pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).
A search of PubMed (January 2004-May 2013) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (January 2004-May 2013) using the search terms bedaquiline, diarylquinoline, R207910, and TMC207 was performed. Supplementary sources included proceedings of the Union World Conference on Lung Health.
STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION
Preclinical data as well as Phase 1 and 2 studies published in English were evaluated.
Bedaquiline possesses a unique mechanism of action that disrupts the activity of the mycobacterial adenosine triphosphate synthase. Clinical trials have been conducted evaluating the use of bedaquiline in combination with a background regimen for the treatment of adults with pulmonary MDR-TB. Bedaquiline has an excellent in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including multidrug resistant M tuberculosis; however, its side effect profile limits its use against MDR-TB when no other effective regimen can be provided. Bedaquiline carries Black Box warnings for increased risk of unexplained mortality and QT prolongation. Bedaquiline is metabolized via the CYP3A4 isoenzyme and thus interacts with rifamycins and several antiretrovirals.
In an era of emerging resistance and given the suboptimal efficacy and toxicity of currently available regimens for MDR-TB, bedaquiline represents a great addition to the existing armamentarium of anti-TB agents particularly in areas of the world where the disease is endemic.