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Perceived discrimination is associated with reduced breast and cervical cancer screening: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014 Feb; 23(2):138-45.JW

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Racial disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening have been documented in African American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. Perceived discrimination may contribute to this disparity. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between perceived everyday racial/ethnic and other discrimination and receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening in a multiethnic population of women.

METHODS

We analyzed data from 3,258 women participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multiethnic/racial, longitudinal cohort study of the natural history of the menopausal transition conducted at seven U.S. sites. Participants completed a validated measure of perceived discrimination and reasons for believing that they were treated differently, along with Pap smears, clinical breast exams (CBE), and mammography at each follow-up period. We used multiple logistic regression for the binary outcomes of having a Pap smear, CBE, or mammogram in each of the two follow-up years, using self-reported "race discrimination" and "other discrimination" at baseline as the main predictors.

RESULTS

African American women reported the highest percentage of racial discrimination (35%), followed by Chinese (20%), Hispanic (12%), Japanese (11%), and non-Hispanic white women (3%). Non-Hispanic white women reported the highest percentage of "other" discrimination (40%), followed by Chinese (33%), African American (24%), Japanese (23%), and Hispanic women (16%). Perceived racial discrimination was not associated with reduced receipt of preventive screening, except in one fully adjusted model. Reported discrimination owing to "other" reasons, such as age or gender, was associated with reduced receipt of Pap smear (odds ratio [OR] 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-0.99), CBE (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.67-0.91), and mammography (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.69-0.92) regardless of patient race.

CONCLUSIONS

Perceived discrimination is an important issue across racial/ethnic groups and is negatively associated with receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening. This is an important issue that needs to be further explored and addressed in efforts to improve the delivery of healthcare to all groups.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1 Departments of Medicine and Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health , Madison, Wisconsin.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24261647

Citation

Jacobs, Elizabeth A., et al. "Perceived Discrimination Is Associated With Reduced Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)." Journal of Women's Health (2002), vol. 23, no. 2, 2014, pp. 138-45.
Jacobs EA, Rathouz PJ, Karavolos K, et al. Perceived discrimination is associated with reduced breast and cervical cancer screening: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014;23(2):138-45.
Jacobs, E. A., Rathouz, P. J., Karavolos, K., Everson-Rose, S. A., Janssen, I., Kravitz, H. M., Lewis, T. T., & Powell, L. H. (2014). Perceived discrimination is associated with reduced breast and cervical cancer screening: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Journal of Women's Health (2002), 23(2), 138-45. https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2013.4328
Jacobs EA, et al. Perceived Discrimination Is Associated With Reduced Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014;23(2):138-45. PubMed PMID: 24261647.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Perceived discrimination is associated with reduced breast and cervical cancer screening: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). AU - Jacobs,Elizabeth A, AU - Rathouz,Paul J, AU - Karavolos,Kelly, AU - Everson-Rose,Susan A, AU - Janssen,Imke, AU - Kravitz,Howard M, AU - Lewis,Tené T, AU - Powell,Lynda H, Y1 - 2013/11/21/ PY - 2013/11/23/entrez PY - 2013/11/23/pubmed PY - 2014/4/15/medline SP - 138 EP - 45 JF - Journal of women's health (2002) JO - J Womens Health (Larchmt) VL - 23 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening have been documented in African American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. Perceived discrimination may contribute to this disparity. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between perceived everyday racial/ethnic and other discrimination and receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening in a multiethnic population of women. METHODS: We analyzed data from 3,258 women participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multiethnic/racial, longitudinal cohort study of the natural history of the menopausal transition conducted at seven U.S. sites. Participants completed a validated measure of perceived discrimination and reasons for believing that they were treated differently, along with Pap smears, clinical breast exams (CBE), and mammography at each follow-up period. We used multiple logistic regression for the binary outcomes of having a Pap smear, CBE, or mammogram in each of the two follow-up years, using self-reported "race discrimination" and "other discrimination" at baseline as the main predictors. RESULTS: African American women reported the highest percentage of racial discrimination (35%), followed by Chinese (20%), Hispanic (12%), Japanese (11%), and non-Hispanic white women (3%). Non-Hispanic white women reported the highest percentage of "other" discrimination (40%), followed by Chinese (33%), African American (24%), Japanese (23%), and Hispanic women (16%). Perceived racial discrimination was not associated with reduced receipt of preventive screening, except in one fully adjusted model. Reported discrimination owing to "other" reasons, such as age or gender, was associated with reduced receipt of Pap smear (odds ratio [OR] 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-0.99), CBE (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.67-0.91), and mammography (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.69-0.92) regardless of patient race. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived discrimination is an important issue across racial/ethnic groups and is negatively associated with receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening. This is an important issue that needs to be further explored and addressed in efforts to improve the delivery of healthcare to all groups. SN - 1931-843X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24261647/Perceived_discrimination_is_associated_with_reduced_breast_and_cervical_cancer_screening:_the_Study_of_Women's_Health_Across_the_Nation__SWAN__ L2 - https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/jwh.2013.4328?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -