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No effect of caloric restriction on salivary cortisol levels in overweight men and women.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The effect of weight loss by diet or diet and exercise on salivary cortisol levels, a measure of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal activity, in overweight individuals is not known. The objective was to test the hypothesis that 24 weeks of moderate caloric restriction (CR) (25%) by diet or diet and aerobic exercise would alter morning and diurnal salivary cortisol levels.

DESIGN AND SETTING

Randomized control trial in an institutional research center.

PARTICIPANTS

Thirty-five overweight (BMI: 27.8±0.7 kg/m(2)) but otherwise healthy participants (16 M/19 F).

INTERVENTION

Participants were randomized to either calorie restriction (CR: 25% reduction in energy intake, n=12), calorie restriction+exercise (CR+EX: 12.5% reduction in energy intake+12.5% increase in exercise energy expenditure, n=12) or control (healthy weight-maintenance diet, n=11) for 6 months.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE

Salivary cortisol measured at 8:00, 8:30, 11:00, 11:30, 12:30, 13:00, 16:00 and 16:30. Morning cortisol was defined as the mean cortisol concentration at 08:00 and 08:30. Diurnal cortisol was calculated as the mean of the 8 cortisol measures across the day.

RESULTS

In the whole cohort, higher morning and diurnal cortisol levels were associated with impaired insulin sensitivity (morning: P=0.004, r(2)=0.24; diurnal: P=0.02, r(2)=0.15). Using mixed model analysis, there was no significant effect of group, time or sex on morning or diurnal cortisol levels.

CONCLUSION

A 10% weight loss with a 25% CR diet alone or with exercise did not impact morning or diurnal salivary cortisol levels.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808; The Charles Perkins Centre and School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

    ,

    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808.

    ,

    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808.

    ,

    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808.

    ,

    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808.

    ,

    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808. Electronic address: leanne.redman@pbrc.edu.

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Caloric Restriction
    Circadian Rhythm
    Energy Metabolism
    Exercise
    Female
    Humans
    Hydrocortisone
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Overweight
    Saliva
    Treatment Outcome
    Weight Loss

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    24268369

    Citation

    Tam, Charmaine S., et al. "No Effect of Caloric Restriction On Salivary Cortisol Levels in Overweight Men and Women." Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 63, no. 2, 2014, pp. 194-8.
    Tam CS, Frost EA, Xie W, et al. No effect of caloric restriction on salivary cortisol levels in overweight men and women. Metab Clin Exp. 2014;63(2):194-8.
    Tam, C. S., Frost, E. A., Xie, W., Rood, J., Ravussin, E., & Redman, L. M. (2014). No effect of caloric restriction on salivary cortisol levels in overweight men and women. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 63(2), pp. 194-8. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2013.10.007.
    Tam CS, et al. No Effect of Caloric Restriction On Salivary Cortisol Levels in Overweight Men and Women. Metab Clin Exp. 2014;63(2):194-8. PubMed PMID: 24268369.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - No effect of caloric restriction on salivary cortisol levels in overweight men and women. AU - Tam,Charmaine S, AU - Frost,Elizabeth A, AU - Xie,Wenting, AU - Rood,Jennifer, AU - Ravussin,Eric, AU - Redman,Leanne M, AU - ,, Y1 - 2013/10/24/ PY - 2013/04/19/received PY - 2013/09/19/revised PY - 2013/10/15/accepted PY - 2013/11/26/entrez PY - 2013/11/26/pubmed PY - 2014/3/8/medline KW - ACTH KW - AIRg KW - Acute insulin response to glucose KW - Adrenocorticotropic hormone KW - BMI KW - Body Mass Index KW - CALERIE KW - CR KW - CR+EX KW - Calorie restriction KW - Calorie restriction+exercise KW - Cortisol KW - EE KW - ELISA KW - Energy expenditure KW - Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay KW - HPA KW - Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal KW - IGF KW - Insulin sensitivity KW - Insulin-like growth factor KW - LCD KW - Low calorie diet KW - Obesity KW - PBRC KW - Pennington Biomedical Research Center KW - Si KW - T3 KW - T4 KW - TSH KW - The Comprehensive Assessment of Long-Term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy KW - Thyroid stimulating hormone KW - Thyroxine KW - Triiodothyronine KW - VLCD KW - Very low calorie diet. KW - Weight loss SP - 194 EP - 8 JF - Metabolism: clinical and experimental JO - Metab. Clin. Exp. VL - 63 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: The effect of weight loss by diet or diet and exercise on salivary cortisol levels, a measure of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal activity, in overweight individuals is not known. The objective was to test the hypothesis that 24 weeks of moderate caloric restriction (CR) (25%) by diet or diet and aerobic exercise would alter morning and diurnal salivary cortisol levels. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized control trial in an institutional research center. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five overweight (BMI: 27.8±0.7 kg/m(2)) but otherwise healthy participants (16 M/19 F). INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized to either calorie restriction (CR: 25% reduction in energy intake, n=12), calorie restriction+exercise (CR+EX: 12.5% reduction in energy intake+12.5% increase in exercise energy expenditure, n=12) or control (healthy weight-maintenance diet, n=11) for 6 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Salivary cortisol measured at 8:00, 8:30, 11:00, 11:30, 12:30, 13:00, 16:00 and 16:30. Morning cortisol was defined as the mean cortisol concentration at 08:00 and 08:30. Diurnal cortisol was calculated as the mean of the 8 cortisol measures across the day. RESULTS: In the whole cohort, higher morning and diurnal cortisol levels were associated with impaired insulin sensitivity (morning: P=0.004, r(2)=0.24; diurnal: P=0.02, r(2)=0.15). Using mixed model analysis, there was no significant effect of group, time or sex on morning or diurnal cortisol levels. CONCLUSION: A 10% weight loss with a 25% CR diet alone or with exercise did not impact morning or diurnal salivary cortisol levels. SN - 1532-8600 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24268369/No_effect_of_caloric_restriction_on_salivary_cortisol_levels_in_overweight_men_and_women_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0026-0495(13)00339-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -