Recovery of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in ripened cheese obtained from milk of cows fed different levels of extruded flaxseed.J Dairy Sci. 2014; 97(1):123-35.JD
The aim of the study was to investigate whether the addition of extruded flaxseed (EF) in dairy cow diets had an effect on milk fat and individual fatty acids (FA) recovery in cheese after 90 d of ripening. Eighteen Holstein-Friesian cows, divided into 3 experimental groups (6 cows/group), were fed 3 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets with 0 (CTR), 500 (EF500), or 1,000 g/d (EF1000) of EF in 3 subsequent periods (2 wk/each), following a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield were recorded daily. Individual milk samples were collected on d 7 and 13 of each period to determine proximate and FA composition. Eighteen cheese-making sessions (2 for each group and period) were carried out, using a representative pooled milk sample obtained from the 6 cows of each group (10L). At 90 d of ripening, cheeses were analyzed for proximate and FA composition. Cheese yield was computed as the ratio between the weights of ripened cheese and processed milk. Recoveries of fat, individual FA, and grouped FA were computed as the ratio between the corresponding weights in cheese and in milk. Inclusion of EF did not affect DMI, milk yield, or milk composition. Compared with CTR, the 2 diets containing EF increased the proportion of C18:3n-3 and total n-3 FA, in both milk and cheese. Cheese yield and cheese fat percentage did not differ among diets. Likewise, milk fat recovery in cheese was comparable in the 3 treatments and averaged 0.85. The recoveries of individual FA were, for the most part, not dissimilar from fat recovery, except for short-chain saturated FA (from 0.38 for C4:0 to 0.80 for C13:0), some long-chain saturated FA (0.56 and 0.62 for C20:0 and C21:0, respectively), and for C18:3n-6 (1.65). The recovery of saturated FA was lower than that of monounsaturated FA, whereas recovery of polyunsaturated FA was intermediate. Compared with medium- and long-chain FA, short-chain FA were recovered to a smaller extent in cheese. No differences in recovery were found between n-6 and n-3 FA. In conclusion, FA have different recoveries during cheese-making, with lower values for the short-chain compared with long-chain FA, and for saturated FA compared with unsaturated FA. The addition of EF in dairy cow diets did not influence cheese yield or fat recovery in cheese, irrespective of the inclusion level. The experiment confirmed that feeding cows with EF represents a successful strategy for improving the FA profile of dairy products, through an increase of n-3 FA.