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Distinct effects of duration of untreated psychosis on brain cortical activities in different treatment phases of schizophrenia: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been shown to be associated with both poor short-term and long-term outcomes in schizophrenia. Even so, few studies have used functional neuroimaging to investigate DUP in schizophrenia. In the present study, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to investigate the influence of DUP on brain functions during a verbal fluency test (VFT) in patients with schizophrenia.

METHODS

A total of 62 patients with schizophrenia were included. They were categorized into either short treatment (≤6months, n=33) or long treatment (>6months, n=29) groups based on their duration of treatment. Hemodynamic changes over the frontotemporal regions during a VFT were measured using multi-channel NIRS. We examined the associations between DUP and hemodynamic changes in each group to explore if there were different effects of DUP on brain cortical activity at different treatment durations.

RESULTS

In the long treatment group, we found significant associations between a longer DUP and decreased cortical activity approximately at the left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right precentral gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral middle temporal gyrus, whereas no associations between DUP and brain cortical activity were observed in the short treatment group.

CONCLUSIONS

Our results indicated that longer DUP may be associated with decreased level of cortical activities over the frontotemporal regions in the long-term. Early detection and intervention of psychosis that shortens DUP might help to improve the long-term outcomes in patients with schizophrenia.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan; Department of Psychiatry, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung City, 40705, Taiwan.Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan; Office for Mental Health Support, Division for Counseling and Support, the University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan; Application Development Office, Hitachi Medical Corporation, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277-0804, Japan.Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan; Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UK.Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan. Electronic address: kasaik-tky@umin.net.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24275075

Citation

Chou, Po-Han, et al. "Distinct Effects of Duration of Untreated Psychosis On Brain Cortical Activities in Different Treatment Phases of Schizophrenia: a Multi-channel Near-infrared Spectroscopy Study." Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, vol. 49, 2014, pp. 63-9.
Chou PH, Koike S, Nishimura Y, et al. Distinct effects of duration of untreated psychosis on brain cortical activities in different treatment phases of schizophrenia: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2014;49:63-9.
Chou, P. H., Koike, S., Nishimura, Y., Kawasaki, S., Satomura, Y., Kinoshita, A., ... Kasai, K. (2014). Distinct effects of duration of untreated psychosis on brain cortical activities in different treatment phases of schizophrenia: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study. Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 49, pp. 63-9. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2013.11.009.
Chou PH, et al. Distinct Effects of Duration of Untreated Psychosis On Brain Cortical Activities in Different Treatment Phases of Schizophrenia: a Multi-channel Near-infrared Spectroscopy Study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Mar 3;49:63-9. PubMed PMID: 24275075.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Distinct effects of duration of untreated psychosis on brain cortical activities in different treatment phases of schizophrenia: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study. AU - Chou,Po-Han, AU - Koike,Shinsuke, AU - Nishimura,Yukika, AU - Kawasaki,Shingo, AU - Satomura,Yoshihiro, AU - Kinoshita,Akihide, AU - Takizawa,Ryu, AU - Kasai,Kiyoto, Y1 - 2013/11/22/ PY - 2013/09/02/received PY - 2013/10/28/revised PY - 2013/11/14/accepted PY - 2013/11/27/entrez PY - 2013/11/28/pubmed PY - 2015/1/1/medline KW - DOI KW - DOT KW - DUP KW - Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) KW - FDR KW - FEP KW - GAF KW - IFG KW - IQ KW - LONI probabilistic brain atlas KW - LPBA KW - MFG KW - MRI KW - MRS KW - MTG KW - NIRS KW - Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) KW - PANSS KW - PET KW - SPECT KW - STG KW - Schizophrenia KW - VFT KW - Verbal fluency test (VFT) KW - duration of illness KW - duration of treatment KW - duration of untreated psychosis KW - fMRI KW - false discovery rate KW - first episode psychosis KW - functional magnetic resonance image KW - global assessment of functioning scale KW - inferior frontal gyrus KW - intelligence quotient KW - magnetic resonance imaging KW - magnetic resonance spectroscopy KW - middle frontal gyrus KW - middle temporal gyrus KW - near-infrared spectroscopy KW - positron emission tomography KW - single-photon emission computed tomography KW - superior temporal gyrus KW - the positive and negative syndrome scale KW - verbal fluency test SP - 63 EP - 9 JF - Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry JO - Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry VL - 49 N2 - BACKGROUND: Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been shown to be associated with both poor short-term and long-term outcomes in schizophrenia. Even so, few studies have used functional neuroimaging to investigate DUP in schizophrenia. In the present study, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to investigate the influence of DUP on brain functions during a verbal fluency test (VFT) in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: A total of 62 patients with schizophrenia were included. They were categorized into either short treatment (≤6months, n=33) or long treatment (>6months, n=29) groups based on their duration of treatment. Hemodynamic changes over the frontotemporal regions during a VFT were measured using multi-channel NIRS. We examined the associations between DUP and hemodynamic changes in each group to explore if there were different effects of DUP on brain cortical activity at different treatment durations. RESULTS: In the long treatment group, we found significant associations between a longer DUP and decreased cortical activity approximately at the left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right precentral gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral middle temporal gyrus, whereas no associations between DUP and brain cortical activity were observed in the short treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that longer DUP may be associated with decreased level of cortical activities over the frontotemporal regions in the long-term. Early detection and intervention of psychosis that shortens DUP might help to improve the long-term outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. SN - 1878-4216 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24275075/Distinct_effects_of_duration_of_untreated_psychosis_on_brain_cortical_activities_in_different_treatment_phases_of_schizophrenia:_a_multi_channel_near_infrared_spectroscopy_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0278-5846(13)00262-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -