Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by selected phenylalkylcaffeine analogues.J Pharm Pharmacol. 2014 May; 66(5):677-87.JP
Caffeine represents a useful scaffold for the design of monoamine oxidase (MAO) type B inhibitors. Specifically, substitution on the C8 position yields structures which are high-potency MAO-B inhibitors. To explore the structure-activity relationships of MAO-B inhibition by caffeine-derived compounds, this study examines the MAO inhibitory properties of a series of phenylalkylcaffeine analogues.
Employing the recombinant human enzymes, the potencies (IC50 values) by which the caffeine analogues inhibit MAO-A and MAO-B were measured. The reversibility of inhibition of a selected inhibitor was determined by measuring the recovery of enzyme activity after dilution and dialysis of enzyme-inhibitor mixtures.
The results document that the phenylalkylcaffeine analogues are reversible and selective MAO-B inhibitors with a competitive mode of inhibition. The most potent analogue, 8-(7-phenylheptyl)caffeine, exhibits IC50 values for the inhibition of MAO-A and MAO-B of 3.01 μm and 0.086 μm, respectively. Increasing the length of the alkyl side chain leads to enhanced MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitory potency while introduction of a carbonyl group reduces MAO-B inhibitory potency.
Phenylalkylcaffeines represent a new class of high-potency MAO-B inhibitors with the longer alkyl side chains yielding enhanced inhibitory activity. Such compounds may represent useful leads for the development of anti-parkinsonian therapies.