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Analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater from two Canadian cities.
Sci Total Environ 2014; 487:722-30ST

Abstract

Several drugs of abuse, including amphetamines, cocaine and its metabolite, benzoylecgonine and several opioid prescription drugs were detected in wastewater from two Canadian cities, a small community (75,000 population) and a large urban center (1.6 million population). The objective of this study was to evaluate community use of these drugs in two cities with large differences in population size and demographics. In addition, we evaluated the use of the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) as a monitoring tool for drugs of abuse. Heroin was not detected at either location, probably because this illicit drug is metabolized to morphine prior to excretion. Acetylcodeine and acetylmorphine were also not detected. Estimates of community consumption from wastewater analysis indicated that the most widely used drug was cocaine at a median level of consumption in the larger city of approximately 38 doses per day per 1000 people. Consumption of the substituted amphetamine, ephedrine, as well as methamphetamine was also higher in the larger city, at 21 and 1.8 doses per day per 1000 people, respectively. Use of amphetamine, MDMA and tramadol were similar in both centers, but use of oxycodone was greater in the smaller city. Use of MDMA (ecstasy) peaked on weekends. Ketamine was detected in wastewater from the larger city; the first report of abuse of this veterinary anesthetic in a North American city. POCIS sampling rates were determined for the first time for 7 of the target compounds. Comparing the time weighted average concentrations estimated from POCIS data to the concentrations obtained from 24-h composite samples, the data were generally comparable, except for some compounds which were not detected in POCIS deployed in the untreated wastewater, probably because of biofouling or accumulation of debris on the cages containing the POCIS. This study indicates that the size and demographics of population centers can influence the patterns of abuse of drugs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address: Viviane.yargeau@mcgill.ca.Water Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, Canada.Water Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, Canada.Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.Water Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24321387

Citation

Yargeau, Viviane, et al. "Analysis of Drugs of Abuse in Wastewater From Two Canadian Cities." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 487, 2014, pp. 722-30.
Yargeau V, Taylor B, Li H, et al. Analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater from two Canadian cities. Sci Total Environ. 2014;487:722-30.
Yargeau, V., Taylor, B., Li, H., Rodayan, A., & Metcalfe, C. D. (2014). Analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater from two Canadian cities. The Science of the Total Environment, 487, pp. 722-30. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.11.094.
Yargeau V, et al. Analysis of Drugs of Abuse in Wastewater From Two Canadian Cities. Sci Total Environ. 2014 Jul 15;487:722-30. PubMed PMID: 24321387.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater from two Canadian cities. AU - Yargeau,Viviane, AU - Taylor,Bryanne, AU - Li,Hongxia, AU - Rodayan,Angela, AU - Metcalfe,Chris D, Y1 - 2013/12/08/ PY - 2013/09/10/received PY - 2013/11/16/revised PY - 2013/11/17/accepted PY - 2013/12/11/entrez PY - 2013/12/11/pubmed PY - 2014/11/8/medline KW - Amphetamines KW - Cocaine KW - Illicit drugs KW - Opioids KW - Wastewater SP - 722 EP - 30 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci. Total Environ. VL - 487 N2 - Several drugs of abuse, including amphetamines, cocaine and its metabolite, benzoylecgonine and several opioid prescription drugs were detected in wastewater from two Canadian cities, a small community (75,000 population) and a large urban center (1.6 million population). The objective of this study was to evaluate community use of these drugs in two cities with large differences in population size and demographics. In addition, we evaluated the use of the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) as a monitoring tool for drugs of abuse. Heroin was not detected at either location, probably because this illicit drug is metabolized to morphine prior to excretion. Acetylcodeine and acetylmorphine were also not detected. Estimates of community consumption from wastewater analysis indicated that the most widely used drug was cocaine at a median level of consumption in the larger city of approximately 38 doses per day per 1000 people. Consumption of the substituted amphetamine, ephedrine, as well as methamphetamine was also higher in the larger city, at 21 and 1.8 doses per day per 1000 people, respectively. Use of amphetamine, MDMA and tramadol were similar in both centers, but use of oxycodone was greater in the smaller city. Use of MDMA (ecstasy) peaked on weekends. Ketamine was detected in wastewater from the larger city; the first report of abuse of this veterinary anesthetic in a North American city. POCIS sampling rates were determined for the first time for 7 of the target compounds. Comparing the time weighted average concentrations estimated from POCIS data to the concentrations obtained from 24-h composite samples, the data were generally comparable, except for some compounds which were not detected in POCIS deployed in the untreated wastewater, probably because of biofouling or accumulation of debris on the cages containing the POCIS. This study indicates that the size and demographics of population centers can influence the patterns of abuse of drugs. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24321387/Analysis_of_drugs_of_abuse_in_wastewater_from_two_Canadian_cities_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048-9697(13)01377-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -