Ciprofloxacin oxidation by UV-C activated peroxymonosulfate in wastewater.J Hazard Mater. 2014 Jan 30; 265:41-6.JH
This work aimed at demonstrating the advantages to use sulfate radical anion for eliminating ciprofloxacin residues from treated domestic wastewater by comparing three UV-254nm based advanced oxidation processes: UV/persulfate (PDS), UV/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and UV/H2O2. In distilled water, the order of efficiency was UV/PDS>UV/PMS>UV/H2O2 while in wastewater, the most efficient process was UV/PMS followed by UV/PDS and UV/H2O2 mainly because PMS decomposition into sulfate radical anion was activated by bicarbonate ions. CIP was fully degraded in wastewater at pH 7 in 60min for a [PMS]/[CIP] molar ratio of 20. Nine transformation products were identified by liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry allowing for the establishment of degradation pathways in the UV/PMS system. Sulfate radical anion attacks prompted transformations at the piperazinyl ring through a one electron oxidation mechanism as a major pathway while hydroxyl radical attacks were mainly responsible for quinolone moiety transformations as a minor pathway. Sulfate radical anion generation has made UV/PMS a kinetically effective process in removing ciprofloxacin from wastewater with the elimination of ciprofloxacin antibacterial activity.