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Potential effect of salt reduction in processed foods on health.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Excessive salt intake has been associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Reducing salt intake is considered an important public health strategy in the Netherlands.

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to evaluate the health benefits of salt-reduction strategies related to processed foods for the Dutch population.

DESIGN

Three salt-reduction scenarios were developed: 1) substitution of high-salt foods with low-salt foods, 2) a reduction in the sodium content of processed foods, and 3) adherence to the recommended maximum salt intake of 6 g/d. Health outcomes were obtained in 2 steps: after salt intake was modeled into blood pressure levels, the Chronic Disease Model was used to translate modeled blood pressures into incidences of cardiovascular diseases, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and life expectancies. Health outcomes of the scenarios were compared with health outcomes obtained with current salt intake.

RESULTS

In total, 4.8% of acute myocardial infarction cases, 1.7% of congestive heart failure cases, and 5.8% of stroke cases might be prevented if salt intake meets the recommended maximum intake. The burden of disease might be reduced by 56,400 DALYs, and life expectancy might increase by 0.15 y for a 40-y-old individual. Substitution of foods with comparable low-salt alternatives would lead to slightly higher salt intake reductions and thus to more health gain. The estimates for sodium reduction in processed foods would be slightly lower.

CONCLUSION

Substantial health benefits might be achieved when added salt is removed from processed foods and when consumers choose more low-salt food alternatives.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands (MAHH, RTH, JH, HCB, and JMAvR), and the Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands (JMG, HCB, and JMAvR).

    , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Aged
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Child
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Diet Surveys
    Diet, Sodium-Restricted
    Fast Foods
    Food Handling
    Food, Preserved
    Food-Processing Industry
    Guideline Adherence
    Health Promotion
    Humans
    Hypertension
    Life Expectancy
    Models, Biological
    Netherlands
    Patient Compliance
    Quality of Life
    Recommended Dietary Allowances
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    24335058

    Citation

    TY - JOUR T1 - Potential effect of salt reduction in processed foods on health. AU - Hendriksen,Marieke A H, AU - Hoogenveen,Rudolf T, AU - Hoekstra,Jeljer, AU - Geleijnse,Johanna M, AU - Boshuizen,Hendriek C, AU - van Raaij,Joop M A, Y1 - 2013/12/11/ PY - 2013/12/17/entrez PY - 2013/12/18/pubmed PY - 2014/5/3/medline SP - 446 EP - 53 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 99 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Excessive salt intake has been associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Reducing salt intake is considered an important public health strategy in the Netherlands. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the health benefits of salt-reduction strategies related to processed foods for the Dutch population. DESIGN: Three salt-reduction scenarios were developed: 1) substitution of high-salt foods with low-salt foods, 2) a reduction in the sodium content of processed foods, and 3) adherence to the recommended maximum salt intake of 6 g/d. Health outcomes were obtained in 2 steps: after salt intake was modeled into blood pressure levels, the Chronic Disease Model was used to translate modeled blood pressures into incidences of cardiovascular diseases, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and life expectancies. Health outcomes of the scenarios were compared with health outcomes obtained with current salt intake. RESULTS: In total, 4.8% of acute myocardial infarction cases, 1.7% of congestive heart failure cases, and 5.8% of stroke cases might be prevented if salt intake meets the recommended maximum intake. The burden of disease might be reduced by 56,400 DALYs, and life expectancy might increase by 0.15 y for a 40-y-old individual. Substitution of foods with comparable low-salt alternatives would lead to slightly higher salt intake reductions and thus to more health gain. The estimates for sodium reduction in processed foods would be slightly lower. CONCLUSION: Substantial health benefits might be achieved when added salt is removed from processed foods and when consumers choose more low-salt food alternatives. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24335058/Potential_effect_of_salt_reduction_in_processed_foods_on_health_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.113.062018 ER -