[The importance of folic acid deficiency in the pathogenesis of vascular, mixed and Alzheimer's disease dementia].Pol Merkur Lekarski 2013; 35(208):205-9PM
Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and mixed dementia (MD) are the most common dementia diseases among the elderly. Currently, there is no effective treatment of these diseases and, therefore, it seems justified to develop the principles of prevention, taking into account the elimination of risk factors. Among them folic acid deficiency may play an important role.
THE AIM OF THE STUDY
To evaluate possible relationship of folate deficiency with the development of selected dementia diseases: vascular dementia (VaD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), mixed dementia (MD).
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The study involved 166 people, including 47 people with the diagnosis of AD, 41 with VaD and 36 with MD. The control group consisted of 42 persons without cognitive impairment. All patients underwent a general physical, neurological, psychiatric and extensive neuropsychological examination, as well as routine blood and biochemical screening tests and neuroimaging. The level of serum folate (Fol) was measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. To assess the correlation of Fol level with the cognitive impairment neuropsychometric scales: Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) were used.
In patients with dementia, compared with the control group, there were significantly lower levels of folic acid (p = 0.04). There was no difference in the concentration of Fol in groups of patients (p = 0.0889). In people without cognitive impairment (CDR 0) levels of folic acid were significantly higher compared to the group with moderate dementia (CDR 2, p = 0.0475).
The results may suggest that folic acid deficiency is one of the possible causes of dementia, but does not determine its type. Determination of serum Fol in the elderly and supplementation of this vitamin deficiency may play an important role in the prevention of the most common dementias.