Scaling dermatosis in three dogs associated with abnormal sebaceous gland differentiation.Vet Dermatol. 2014 Feb; 25(1):23-e8.VD
Abnormal sebaceous gland differentiation, so-called 'sebaceous gland dysplasia', is a rare condition described in the dog and the cat. Although little is known about this condition, it is thought that a genetic defect causes abnormal sebaceous gland development. Clinically, this condition occurs in young cats and dogs and is characterized by variable degrees of adherent scale, hair casts, poor coat quality and hypotrichosis.
Here, we describe the clinical presentation and treatment of three adult dogs with abnormal sebaceous gland differentiation.
Three adult dogs presented with a keratinization defect characterized by progressive scaling, hair casts, dull, dry, brittle hair coat and hypotrichosis beginning in puppyhood to early adulthood.
Multiple 6 mm punch skin biopsy samples were obtained from each dog. Treatments included various topical keratomodulatory agents, oral essential fatty acids and oral vitamin A.
Histologically, all sebaceous glands were small and composed of a mixture of irregularly clustered basal reserve cells and mature sebocytes. With therapy, two of the dogs showed moderate to marked clinical improvement in scaling, hair casts and hair coat quality.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE
Although rare, 'sebaceous gland dysplasia' should be considered in cases where a primary keratinization defect is suspected. Given that abnormal sebaceous differentiation is a structural defect of the skin, treatment must be maintained and is aimed at ameliorating the clinical signs rather than curing the disease.