Significance of platelet and monocyte activation for therapeutic immunoglobulin-induced thromboembolism.Thromb Res. 2014 Feb; 133(2):244-53.TR
Thromboembolic events (TEE) in patients receiving infusions of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products have recently been associated with contaminating factor XIa. We studied whether platelet and monocyte activation could also be involved.
Twenty IVIG samples from five manufacturers were tested for the induction of visible whole blood clot formation. A selection of TEE-associated and not associated lots was further analyzed for effects on thromboelastometry, platelet activation and adhesion, as well as monocyte tissue factor surface expression. Pure factor XIa was included for comparison. Western blotting was applied to analyze anti-CD154-reactive proteins in IVIG.
In whole blood, IVIG enhanced macroscopic clotting additively with factor XIa. In monocytes, all IVIG products induced the FcγRII-dependent tissue factor expression to a similar extent, which was not affected by addition of factor XIa. Testing platelet aggregation, IVIG strengthened the ADP and TRAP-6-elicited response. Furthermore, IVIG increased platelet-monocyte adhesion and annexin V binding to platelet microvesicles, and promoted platelet adhesion to IVIG-coated surfaces. The strongest effects were observed with TEE-associated lots. CD154-related proteins were detected in all IVIG products. CD154-related high molecular weight complexes were particularly found in the TEE-associated IVIG. In platelet aggregation, recombinant soluble CD154 enhanced aggregate formation and stability.
Our data demonstrate that IVIG modulate platelet and monocyte activation and can thereby affect the hemostatic balance. These effects are either additive to or independent from factor XIa. CD154-related proteins are assumed to be involved in these interactions, the mechanism of which needs to be elucidated in further studies.