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Effect of alpha linolenic acid supplementation on serum prostate specific antigen (PSA): results from the alpha omega trial.
PLoS One 2013; 8(12):e81519Plos

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for prostate cancer.

METHODS

The Alpha Omega Trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00127452) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ALA and the fish fatty acids eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) on the recurrence of cardiovascular disease, using a 2×2 factorial design. Blood was collected at the start and the end of the intervention period. The present analysis included 1622 patients with a history of a myocardial infarction, aged 60-80 years with an initial PSA concentration <4 ng/mL. They received either 2 g per day of ALA or placebo in margarine spreads for 40 months. T-tests and logistic regression were used to assess the effects of ALA supplementation on changes in serum PSA (both continuously and as a dichotomous outcome, cut-off point: >4 ng/mL).

FINDINGS

Mean serum PSA increased by 0.42 ng/mL on placebo (n = 815) and by 0.52 ng/mL on ALA (n = 807), a difference of 0.10 (95% confidence interval: -0.02 to 0.22) ng/mL (P = 0·12). The odds ratio for PSA rising above 4 ng/mL on ALA versus placebo was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.84-1.58).

INTERPRETATION

An additional amount of 2 g of ALA per day increased PSA by 0.10 ng/mL, but the confidence interval ranged from -0.02 to 0.22 ng/mL and included no effect. Therefore, more studies are needed to establish whether or not ALA intake has a clinically significant effect on PSA or prostate cancer.

TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION

ClinicalTrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00127452. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00127452.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Health Sciences and the EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Department of Health Sciences and the EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands ; Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Department of Health Sciences and the EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Endocrine Laboratory, Department of Clinical Chemistry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Department of Health Sciences and the EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24349086

Citation

Brouwer, Ingeborg A., et al. "Effect of Alpha Linolenic Acid Supplementation On Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA): Results From the Alpha Omega Trial." PloS One, vol. 8, no. 12, 2013, pp. e81519.
Brouwer IA, Geleijnse JM, Klaasen VM, et al. Effect of alpha linolenic acid supplementation on serum prostate specific antigen (PSA): results from the alpha omega trial. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(12):e81519.
Brouwer, I. A., Geleijnse, J. M., Klaasen, V. M., Smit, L. A., Giltay, E. J., de Goede, J., ... Katan, M. B. (2013). Effect of alpha linolenic acid supplementation on serum prostate specific antigen (PSA): results from the alpha omega trial. PloS One, 8(12), pp. e81519. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081519.
Brouwer IA, et al. Effect of Alpha Linolenic Acid Supplementation On Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA): Results From the Alpha Omega Trial. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(12):e81519. PubMed PMID: 24349086.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of alpha linolenic acid supplementation on serum prostate specific antigen (PSA): results from the alpha omega trial. AU - Brouwer,Ingeborg A, AU - Geleijnse,Johanna M, AU - Klaasen,Veronique M, AU - Smit,Liesbeth A, AU - Giltay,Erik J, AU - de Goede,Janette, AU - Heijboer,Annemieke C, AU - Kromhout,Daan, AU - Katan,Martijn B, Y1 - 2013/12/11/ PY - 2013/05/23/received PY - 2013/10/12/accepted PY - 2013/12/19/entrez PY - 2013/12/19/pubmed PY - 2014/9/30/medline SP - e81519 EP - e81519 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 8 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for prostate cancer. METHODS: The Alpha Omega Trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00127452) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ALA and the fish fatty acids eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) on the recurrence of cardiovascular disease, using a 2×2 factorial design. Blood was collected at the start and the end of the intervention period. The present analysis included 1622 patients with a history of a myocardial infarction, aged 60-80 years with an initial PSA concentration <4 ng/mL. They received either 2 g per day of ALA or placebo in margarine spreads for 40 months. T-tests and logistic regression were used to assess the effects of ALA supplementation on changes in serum PSA (both continuously and as a dichotomous outcome, cut-off point: >4 ng/mL). FINDINGS: Mean serum PSA increased by 0.42 ng/mL on placebo (n = 815) and by 0.52 ng/mL on ALA (n = 807), a difference of 0.10 (95% confidence interval: -0.02 to 0.22) ng/mL (P = 0·12). The odds ratio for PSA rising above 4 ng/mL on ALA versus placebo was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.84-1.58). INTERPRETATION: An additional amount of 2 g of ALA per day increased PSA by 0.10 ng/mL, but the confidence interval ranged from -0.02 to 0.22 ng/mL and included no effect. Therefore, more studies are needed to establish whether or not ALA intake has a clinically significant effect on PSA or prostate cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: ClinicalTrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00127452. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00127452. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24349086/Effect_of_alpha_linolenic_acid_supplementation_on_serum_prostate_specific_antigen__PSA_:_results_from_the_alpha_omega_trial_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081519 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -