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Cardiovascular health metrics and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality among middle-aged men in Korea: the Seoul male cohort study.
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013 Nov; 46(6):319-28.JP

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

This study estimated the association of cardiovascular health behaviors with the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in middle-aged men in Korea.

METHODS

In total, 12 538 men aged 40 to 59 years were enrolled in 1993 and followed up through 2011. Cardiovascular health metrics defined the following lifestyle behaviors proposed by the American Heart Association: smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diet habit score, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. The cardiovascular health metrics score was calculated as a single categorical variable, by assigning 1 point to each ideal healthy behavior. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio of cardiovascular health behavior. Population attributable risks (PARs) were calculated from the significant cardiovascular health metrics.

RESULTS

There were 1054 total and 171 CVD deaths over 230 690 person-years of follow-up. The prevalence of meeting all 7 cardiovascular health metrics was 0.67%. Current smoking, elevated blood pressure, and high fasting blood glucose were significantly associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. The adjusted PARs for the 3 significant metrics combined were 35.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.7 to 47.4) and 52.8% (95% CI, 22.0 to 74.0) for all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios of the groups with a 6-7 vs. 0-2 cardiovascular health metrics score were 0.42 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.59) for all-cause mortality and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.29) for CVD mortality.

CONCLUSIONS

Among cardiovascular health behaviors, not smoking, normal blood pressure, and recommended fasting blood glucose levels were associated with reduced risks of all-cause and CVD mortality. Meeting a greater number of cardiovascular health metrics was associated with a lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. ; Korea Institute of Drug Safety and Risk Management, Seoul, Korea.Department of Social Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea.Department of Preventive Medicine, Cheju National University College of Medicine, Jeju, Korea.Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.Department of Preventive Medicine, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China.Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. ; Korean Foundation for Cancer Research, Seoul, Korea.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24349653

Citation

Kim, Ji Young, et al. "Cardiovascular Health Metrics and All-cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Middle-aged Men in Korea: the Seoul Male Cohort Study." Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health = Yebang Uihakhoe Chi, vol. 46, no. 6, 2013, pp. 319-28.
Kim JY, Ko YJ, Rhee CW, et al. Cardiovascular health metrics and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality among middle-aged men in Korea: the Seoul male cohort study. J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(6):319-28.
Kim, J. Y., Ko, Y. J., Rhee, C. W., Park, B. J., Kim, D. H., Bae, J. M., Shin, M. H., Lee, M. S., Li, Z. M., & Ahn, Y. O. (2013). Cardiovascular health metrics and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality among middle-aged men in Korea: the Seoul male cohort study. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health = Yebang Uihakhoe Chi, 46(6), 319-28. https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.6.319
Kim JY, et al. Cardiovascular Health Metrics and All-cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Middle-aged Men in Korea: the Seoul Male Cohort Study. J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(6):319-28. PubMed PMID: 24349653.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cardiovascular health metrics and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality among middle-aged men in Korea: the Seoul male cohort study. AU - Kim,Ji Young, AU - Ko,Young-Jin, AU - Rhee,Chul Woo, AU - Park,Byung-Joo, AU - Kim,Dong-Hyun, AU - Bae,Jong-Myon, AU - Shin,Myung-Hee, AU - Lee,Moo-Song, AU - Li,Zhong Min, AU - Ahn,Yoon-Ok, Y1 - 2013/11/28/ PY - 2013/06/28/received PY - 2013/10/04/accepted PY - 2013/12/19/entrez PY - 2013/12/19/pubmed PY - 2014/7/2/medline KW - Cardiovascular diseases KW - Cohort studies KW - Cox proportional hazards models KW - Life style KW - Mortality SP - 319 EP - 28 JF - Journal of preventive medicine and public health = Yebang Uihakhoe chi JO - J Prev Med Public Health VL - 46 IS - 6 N2 - OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the association of cardiovascular health behaviors with the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in middle-aged men in Korea. METHODS: In total, 12 538 men aged 40 to 59 years were enrolled in 1993 and followed up through 2011. Cardiovascular health metrics defined the following lifestyle behaviors proposed by the American Heart Association: smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diet habit score, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. The cardiovascular health metrics score was calculated as a single categorical variable, by assigning 1 point to each ideal healthy behavior. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio of cardiovascular health behavior. Population attributable risks (PARs) were calculated from the significant cardiovascular health metrics. RESULTS: There were 1054 total and 171 CVD deaths over 230 690 person-years of follow-up. The prevalence of meeting all 7 cardiovascular health metrics was 0.67%. Current smoking, elevated blood pressure, and high fasting blood glucose were significantly associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. The adjusted PARs for the 3 significant metrics combined were 35.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.7 to 47.4) and 52.8% (95% CI, 22.0 to 74.0) for all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios of the groups with a 6-7 vs. 0-2 cardiovascular health metrics score were 0.42 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.59) for all-cause mortality and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.29) for CVD mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Among cardiovascular health behaviors, not smoking, normal blood pressure, and recommended fasting blood glucose levels were associated with reduced risks of all-cause and CVD mortality. Meeting a greater number of cardiovascular health metrics was associated with a lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. SN - 2233-4521 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24349653/Cardiovascular_health_metrics_and_all_cause_and_cardiovascular_disease_mortality_among_middle_aged_men_in_Korea:_the_Seoul_male_cohort_study_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.6.319 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -