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Contribution of food additives to sodium and phosphorus content of diets rich in processed foods.
J Ren Nutr. 2014 Jan; 24(1):13-9, 19e1.JR

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Phosphorus-based food additives increase the total phosphorus content of processed foods. However, the extent to which these additives augment total phosphorus intake per day is unclear.

DESIGN AND METHODS

To examine the contribution of phosphorus-based food additives to the total phosphorus content of processed foods, separate 4-day menus for a low-additive and additive-enhanced diet were developed using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) software. The low-additive diet was designed to conform to U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines for energy and phosphorus intake (∼2,000 kcal/day and 900 mg of phosphorus per day), and it contained minimally processed foods. The additive-enhanced diet contained the same food items as the low-additive diet except that highly processed foods were substituted for minimally processed foods. Food items from both diets were collected, blended, and sent for measurement of energy and nutrient intake.

RESULTS

The low-additive and additive-enhanced diet provided approximately 2,200 kcal, 700 mg of calcium, and 3,000 mg of potassium per day on average. Measured sodium and phosphorus content standardized per 100 mg of food was higher each day of the additive-enhanced diet as compared with the low-additive diet. When averaged over the 4 menu days, the measured phosphorus and sodium contents of the additive-enhanced diet were 606 ± 125 and 1,329 ± 642 mg higher than the low-additive diet, respectively, representing a 60% increase in total phosphorus and sodium content on average. When comparing the measured values of the additive-enhanced diet to NDSR-estimated values, there were no statistically significant differences in measured versus estimated phosphorus contents.

CONCLUSION

Phosphorus and sodium additives in processed foods can substantially augment phosphorus and sodium intake, even in relatively healthy diets. Current dietary software may provide reasonable estimates of the phosphorus content in processed foods.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.Bionutrition Core, Clinical Research Unit, Center for Clinical and Translational Science, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.Bionutrition Core, Clinical Research Unit, Center for Clinical and Translational Science, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama; Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama. Electronic address: ogutierr@uab.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24355818

Citation

Carrigan, Anna, et al. "Contribution of Food Additives to Sodium and Phosphorus Content of Diets Rich in Processed Foods." Journal of Renal Nutrition : the Official Journal of the Council On Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation, vol. 24, no. 1, 2014, pp. 13-9, 19e1.
Carrigan A, Klinger A, Choquette SS, et al. Contribution of food additives to sodium and phosphorus content of diets rich in processed foods. J Ren Nutr. 2014;24(1):13-9, 19e1.
Carrigan, A., Klinger, A., Choquette, S. S., Luzuriaga-McPherson, A., Bell, E. K., Darnell, B., & Gutiérrez, O. M. (2014). Contribution of food additives to sodium and phosphorus content of diets rich in processed foods. Journal of Renal Nutrition : the Official Journal of the Council On Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation, 24(1), 13-9, 19e1. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2013.09.003
Carrigan A, et al. Contribution of Food Additives to Sodium and Phosphorus Content of Diets Rich in Processed Foods. J Ren Nutr. 2014;24(1):13-9, 19e1. PubMed PMID: 24355818.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Contribution of food additives to sodium and phosphorus content of diets rich in processed foods. AU - Carrigan,Anna, AU - Klinger,Andrew, AU - Choquette,Suzanne S, AU - Luzuriaga-McPherson,Alexandra, AU - Bell,Emmy K, AU - Darnell,Betty, AU - Gutiérrez,Orlando M, PY - 2013/07/14/received PY - 2013/08/19/revised PY - 2013/09/02/accepted PY - 2013/12/21/entrez PY - 2013/12/21/pubmed PY - 2014/8/6/medline SP - 13-9, 19e1 JF - Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation JO - J Ren Nutr VL - 24 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Phosphorus-based food additives increase the total phosphorus content of processed foods. However, the extent to which these additives augment total phosphorus intake per day is unclear. DESIGN AND METHODS: To examine the contribution of phosphorus-based food additives to the total phosphorus content of processed foods, separate 4-day menus for a low-additive and additive-enhanced diet were developed using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) software. The low-additive diet was designed to conform to U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines for energy and phosphorus intake (∼2,000 kcal/day and 900 mg of phosphorus per day), and it contained minimally processed foods. The additive-enhanced diet contained the same food items as the low-additive diet except that highly processed foods were substituted for minimally processed foods. Food items from both diets were collected, blended, and sent for measurement of energy and nutrient intake. RESULTS: The low-additive and additive-enhanced diet provided approximately 2,200 kcal, 700 mg of calcium, and 3,000 mg of potassium per day on average. Measured sodium and phosphorus content standardized per 100 mg of food was higher each day of the additive-enhanced diet as compared with the low-additive diet. When averaged over the 4 menu days, the measured phosphorus and sodium contents of the additive-enhanced diet were 606 ± 125 and 1,329 ± 642 mg higher than the low-additive diet, respectively, representing a 60% increase in total phosphorus and sodium content on average. When comparing the measured values of the additive-enhanced diet to NDSR-estimated values, there were no statistically significant differences in measured versus estimated phosphorus contents. CONCLUSION: Phosphorus and sodium additives in processed foods can substantially augment phosphorus and sodium intake, even in relatively healthy diets. Current dietary software may provide reasonable estimates of the phosphorus content in processed foods. SN - 1532-8503 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24355818/Contribution_of_food_additives_to_sodium_and_phosphorus_content_of_diets_rich_in_processed_foods_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1051-2276(13)00165-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -