Ecotoxicological evaluation of four UV filters using marine organisms from different trophic levels Isochrysis galbana, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Paracentrotus lividus, and Siriella armata.Chemosphere. 2014 Jun; 104:44-50.C
Due to the concern about the negative effects of exposure to sunlight, combinations of UV filters like 4-Methylbenzylidene-camphor (4-MBC), Benzophenone-3 (BP-3), Benzophenone-4 (BP-4) and 2-Ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) are being introduced in all kind of cosmetic formulas. These chemicals are acquiring a concerning status due to their increasingly common use and the potential risk for the environment. The aim of this study is to assess the behaviour of these compounds in seawater, the toxicity to marine organisms from three trophic levels including autotrophs (Isochrysis galbana), herbivores (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Paracentrotus lividus) and carnivores (Siriella armata), and set a preliminary assessment of potential ecological risk of UV filters in coastal ecosystems. In general, EC50 results show that both EHMC and 4-MBC are the most toxic for our test species, followed by BP-3 and finally BP-4. The most affected species by the presence of these UV filters are the microalgae I. galbana, which showed toxicity thresholds in the range of μg L(-1) units, followed by S. armata>P. Lividus>M. galloprovincialis. The UV filter concentrations measured in the sampled beach water were in the range of tens or even hundreds of ng L(-1). The resulting risk quotients showed appreciable environmental risk in coastal environments for BP-3 and 4-MBC.