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Regulation of energy metabolism by long-chain fatty acids.
Prog Lipid Res. 2014 Jan; 53:124-44.PL

Abstract

In mammals, excess energy is stored primarily as triglycerides, which are mobilized when energy demands arise. This review mainly focuses on the role of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in regulating energy metabolism as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). PPAR-alpha expressed primarily in liver is essential for metabolic adaptation to starvation by inducing genes for beta-oxidation and ketogenesis and by downregulating energy expenditure through fibroblast growth factor 21. PPAR-delta is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and induces genes for LCFA oxidation during fasting and endurance exercise. PPAR-delta also regulates glucose metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis by inducing FOXO1 and PGC1-alpha. Genes targeted by PPAR-gamma in adipocytes suggest that PPAR-gamma senses incoming non-esterified LCFAs and induces the pathways to store LCFAs as triglycerides. Adiponectin, another important target of PPAR-gamma may act as a spacer between adipocytes to maintain their metabolic activity and insulin sensitivity. Another topic of this review is effects of skin LCFAs on energy metabolism. Specific LCFAs are required for the synthesis of skin lipids, which are essential for water barrier and thermal insulation functions of the skin. Disturbance of skin lipid metabolism often causes apparent resistance to developing obesity at the expense of normal skin function.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. Electronic address: mtnakamu@illinois.edu.Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24362249

Citation

Nakamura, Manabu T., et al. "Regulation of Energy Metabolism By Long-chain Fatty Acids." Progress in Lipid Research, vol. 53, 2014, pp. 124-44.
Nakamura MT, Yudell BE, Loor JJ. Regulation of energy metabolism by long-chain fatty acids. Prog Lipid Res. 2014;53:124-44.
Nakamura, M. T., Yudell, B. E., & Loor, J. J. (2014). Regulation of energy metabolism by long-chain fatty acids. Progress in Lipid Research, 53, 124-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plipres.2013.12.001
Nakamura MT, Yudell BE, Loor JJ. Regulation of Energy Metabolism By Long-chain Fatty Acids. Prog Lipid Res. 2014;53:124-44. PubMed PMID: 24362249.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Regulation of energy metabolism by long-chain fatty acids. AU - Nakamura,Manabu T, AU - Yudell,Barbara E, AU - Loor,Juan J, Y1 - 2013/12/18/ PY - 2013/05/27/received PY - 2013/12/03/revised PY - 2013/12/04/accepted PY - 2013/12/24/entrez PY - 2013/12/24/pubmed PY - 2014/10/1/medline KW - 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 KW - 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase KW - 6-phosphofurcto-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 KW - ACAA2 KW - ADIPOR KW - AF1,2 KW - AMP-activated protein kinase KW - AMPK KW - ATF4 KW - ATGL KW - Adiponectin KW - CD36 KW - CPT1A KW - CPT1B KW - CREB KW - CaMK KW - D6D KW - DBD KW - DGAT KW - DNA binding domain KW - EFA KW - ELOVL KW - ETFDH KW - Exercise KW - FABP KW - FAS KW - FATP KW - FFAR KW - FGF21 KW - FOXO1 KW - FXR KW - Fasting KW - G protein-coupled receptor KW - G3P KW - GH KW - GK KW - GLUT4 KW - GPR KW - HADHA KW - HMGCS2 KW - HMW adiponectin KW - HNF4 KW - HSL KW - IGF1 KW - IGF1 binding protein KW - IGF1BP KW - KO KW - Kd KW - LACS KW - LBD KW - LCAD KW - LCFA KW - LPL KW - LXR KW - MCDC KW - MEF2 KW - PDH KW - PDK KW - PEPCK KW - PFK KW - PFKFB3 KW - PGC1α KW - PKA KW - PPAR KW - PPRE KW - PUFA KW - RAR KW - RXR KW - SCD1 KW - SOCS2 KW - STAT5 KW - TNFα KW - TR KW - TRB3 KW - TZD KW - UCP KW - VDR KW - VLCAD KW - VLDL KW - activating transcription factor 4 KW - activation function 1,2 KW - adiponectin receptor KW - adipose triglyceride lipase KW - cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 KW - calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase KW - carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (liver type) KW - carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (muscle type) KW - delta-6 desaturase (also called FADS2) KW - diacylglycerol acyltransferase KW - dissociation constant KW - electron-transferring flavoprotein dehydrogenase KW - elongation of very-long chain KW - essential fatty acid KW - farnesoid-X receptor KW - fatty acid binding protein KW - fatty acid synthase KW - fatty acid transfer protein KW - fatty acid translocase KW - fibroblast growth factor 21 KW - forkhead box O1 KW - free fatty acid receptor KW - gene knockout KW - glucokinase KW - glucose transporter 4 KW - glycerol-3-phosphate KW - growth hormone KW - hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 KW - high molecular weight adiponectin (up to 18mer) KW - hormone sensitive lipase KW - insulin-like growth factor 1 KW - ligand binding domain KW - lipoprotein lipase KW - liver-X receptor KW - long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase KW - long chain acyl-CoA synthase KW - long chain fatty acid (C=14–20) KW - malonyl-CoA decarboxylase KW - myocyte enhancer factor 2 KW - peroxisome proliferator response element KW - peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor KW - peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α KW - phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase KW - phosphofructokinase KW - polyunsaturated fatty acid KW - protein kinase A KW - pyruvate dehydrogenase KW - pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase KW - retinoic acid receptor KW - retinoid-X receptor KW - signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 KW - stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 KW - suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 KW - thiazolidinedione KW - thyroid hormone receptor KW - tribbles homolog 3 KW - trifunctional protein α subunit KW - tumor necrosis factor alpha KW - uncoupling protein KW - very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase KW - very low density lipoprotein KW - vitamin D receptor SP - 124 EP - 44 JF - Progress in lipid research JO - Prog Lipid Res VL - 53 N2 - In mammals, excess energy is stored primarily as triglycerides, which are mobilized when energy demands arise. This review mainly focuses on the role of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in regulating energy metabolism as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). PPAR-alpha expressed primarily in liver is essential for metabolic adaptation to starvation by inducing genes for beta-oxidation and ketogenesis and by downregulating energy expenditure through fibroblast growth factor 21. PPAR-delta is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and induces genes for LCFA oxidation during fasting and endurance exercise. PPAR-delta also regulates glucose metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis by inducing FOXO1 and PGC1-alpha. Genes targeted by PPAR-gamma in adipocytes suggest that PPAR-gamma senses incoming non-esterified LCFAs and induces the pathways to store LCFAs as triglycerides. Adiponectin, another important target of PPAR-gamma may act as a spacer between adipocytes to maintain their metabolic activity and insulin sensitivity. Another topic of this review is effects of skin LCFAs on energy metabolism. Specific LCFAs are required for the synthesis of skin lipids, which are essential for water barrier and thermal insulation functions of the skin. Disturbance of skin lipid metabolism often causes apparent resistance to developing obesity at the expense of normal skin function. SN - 1873-2194 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24362249/Regulation_of_energy_metabolism_by_long_chain_fatty_acids_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0163-7827(13)00069-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -