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Interactions between ethylene and auxin are crucial to the control of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening.
BMC Plant Biol. 2013 Dec 23; 13:222.BP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Fruit development is controlled by plant hormones, but the role of hormone interactions during fruit ripening is poorly understood. Interactions between ethylene and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are likely to be crucial during the ripening process, since both hormones have been shown to be implicated in the control of ripening in a range of different fruit species.

RESULTS

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) homologues of the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED (TAR) and YUCCA families, functioning in the only characterized pathway of auxin biosynthesis, were identified and the expression of several TAR genes was shown to be induced by the pre-ripening application of the ethylene-releasing compound Ethrel. The induction of TAR expression was accompanied by increased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations, indicative of an upregulation of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Exposure of ex planta, pre-ripening berries to the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine resulted in decreased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations. The delayed initiation of ripening observed in Ethrel-treated berries might therefore represent an indirect ethylene effect mediated by increased auxin concentrations. During berry development, the expression of three TAR genes and one YUCCA gene was upregulated at the time of ripening initiation and/or during ripening. This increase in auxin biosynthesis gene expression was preceded by high expression levels of the ethylene biosynthesis genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase.

CONCLUSIONS

In grape berries, members of both gene families involved in the two-step pathway of auxin biosynthesis are expressed, suggesting that IAA is produced through the combined action of TAR and YUCCA proteins in developing berries. The induction of TAR expression by Ethrel applications and the developmental expression patterns of auxin and ethylene biosynthesis genes indicate that elevated concentrations of ethylene prior to the initiation of ripening might lead to an increased production of IAA, suggesting a complex involvement of this auxin and its conjugates in grape berry ripening.

Authors+Show Affiliations

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableCSIRO Plant Industry, PO Box 350, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia. christopher.davies@csiro.au.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24364881

Citation

Böttcher, Christine, et al. "Interactions Between Ethylene and Auxin Are Crucial to the Control of Grape (Vitis Vinifera L.) Berry Ripening." BMC Plant Biology, vol. 13, 2013, p. 222.
Böttcher C, Burbidge CA, Boss PK, et al. Interactions between ethylene and auxin are crucial to the control of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening. BMC Plant Biol. 2013;13:222.
Böttcher, C., Burbidge, C. A., Boss, P. K., & Davies, C. (2013). Interactions between ethylene and auxin are crucial to the control of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening. BMC Plant Biology, 13, 222. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-13-222
Böttcher C, et al. Interactions Between Ethylene and Auxin Are Crucial to the Control of Grape (Vitis Vinifera L.) Berry Ripening. BMC Plant Biol. 2013 Dec 23;13:222. PubMed PMID: 24364881.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Interactions between ethylene and auxin are crucial to the control of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening. AU - Böttcher,Christine, AU - Burbidge,Crista A, AU - Boss,Paul K, AU - Davies,Christopher, Y1 - 2013/12/23/ PY - 2013/08/26/received PY - 2013/12/20/accepted PY - 2013/12/25/entrez PY - 2013/12/25/pubmed PY - 2014/8/13/medline SP - 222 EP - 222 JF - BMC plant biology JO - BMC Plant Biol VL - 13 N2 - BACKGROUND: Fruit development is controlled by plant hormones, but the role of hormone interactions during fruit ripening is poorly understood. Interactions between ethylene and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are likely to be crucial during the ripening process, since both hormones have been shown to be implicated in the control of ripening in a range of different fruit species. RESULTS: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) homologues of the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED (TAR) and YUCCA families, functioning in the only characterized pathway of auxin biosynthesis, were identified and the expression of several TAR genes was shown to be induced by the pre-ripening application of the ethylene-releasing compound Ethrel. The induction of TAR expression was accompanied by increased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations, indicative of an upregulation of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Exposure of ex planta, pre-ripening berries to the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine resulted in decreased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations. The delayed initiation of ripening observed in Ethrel-treated berries might therefore represent an indirect ethylene effect mediated by increased auxin concentrations. During berry development, the expression of three TAR genes and one YUCCA gene was upregulated at the time of ripening initiation and/or during ripening. This increase in auxin biosynthesis gene expression was preceded by high expression levels of the ethylene biosynthesis genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase. CONCLUSIONS: In grape berries, members of both gene families involved in the two-step pathway of auxin biosynthesis are expressed, suggesting that IAA is produced through the combined action of TAR and YUCCA proteins in developing berries. The induction of TAR expression by Ethrel applications and the developmental expression patterns of auxin and ethylene biosynthesis genes indicate that elevated concentrations of ethylene prior to the initiation of ripening might lead to an increased production of IAA, suggesting a complex involvement of this auxin and its conjugates in grape berry ripening. SN - 1471-2229 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24364881/Interactions_between_ethylene_and_auxin_are_crucial_to_the_control_of_grape__Vitis_vinifera_L___berry_ripening_ L2 - https://bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2229-13-222 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -