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Oral vaccination and protection of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) against rabies using ONRAB, an adenovirus-rabies recombinant vaccine.
Vaccine. 2014 Feb 12; 32(8):984-9.V

Abstract

Twenty-seven red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were each offered a bait containing ONRAB, a recombinant oral rabies vaccine that uses a human adenovirus vector to express the immunogenic rabies virus glycoprotein; 10 controls received no vaccine baits. Serum samples collected from all foxes before treatment, and each week post-treatment for 16 weeks, were tested for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA). In the bait group, a fox was considered a responder to vaccination if serum samples from 3 or more consecutive weeks had RVNA ≥0.5 IU/ml. Using this criterion, 79% of adult foxes (11/14) and 46% of juveniles (6/13) responded to vaccination with ONRAB. Serum RVNA of adults first tested positive (≥0.5 IU/ml) between weeks 1 and 3, about 4 weeks earlier than in juveniles. Adults also responded with higher levels of RVNA and these levels were maintained longer. Serum samples from juveniles tested positive for 1-4 consecutive weeks; in adults the range was 2-15 weeks, with almost half of adults maintaining titres above 0.5 IU/ml for 9 or more consecutive weeks. Based on the kinetics of the antibody response to ONRAB, the best time to sample sera of wild adult foxes for evidence of vaccination is 7-11 weeks following bait distribution. Thirty-four foxes (25 ONRAB, 9 controls) were challenged with vulpine street virus 547 days post-vaccination. All controls developed rabies whereas eight of 13 adult vaccinates (62%) and four of 12 juvenile vaccinates (33%) survived. All foxes classed as non-responders to vaccination developed rabies. Of foxes considered responders to vaccination, 80% of adults (8/10) and 67% of juveniles (4/6) survived challenge. The duration of immunity conferred to foxes would appear adequate for bi-annual and annual bait distribution schedules as vaccinates were challenged 1.5 years post-vaccination.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Wildlife Research and Monitoring Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Trent University, DNA Building, 2140 East Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8, Canada. Electronic address: lucy.brown@ontario.ca.Wildlife Research and Monitoring Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Trent University, DNA Building, 2140 East Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8, Canada.Centre of Expertise for Rabies, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 3851 Fallowfield Road, P.O. Box 11300, Station H, Ottawa, Ontario K2H 8P9, Canada.Wildlife Research and Monitoring Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Trent University, DNA Building, 2140 East Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8, Canada.Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop G-33, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop G-33, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.Wildlife Research and Monitoring Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Trent University, DNA Building, 2140 East Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8, Canada.Wildlife Research and Monitoring Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Trent University, DNA Building, 2140 East Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8, Canada.Wildlife Research and Monitoring Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Trent University, DNA Building, 2140 East Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24374501

Citation

Brown, L J., et al. "Oral Vaccination and Protection of Red Foxes (Vulpes Vulpes) Against Rabies Using ONRAB, an Adenovirus-rabies Recombinant Vaccine." Vaccine, vol. 32, no. 8, 2014, pp. 984-9.
Brown LJ, Rosatte RC, Fehlner-Gardiner C, et al. Oral vaccination and protection of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) against rabies using ONRAB, an adenovirus-rabies recombinant vaccine. Vaccine. 2014;32(8):984-9.
Brown, L. J., Rosatte, R. C., Fehlner-Gardiner, C., Bachmann, P., Ellison, J. A., Jackson, F. R., Taylor, J. S., Davies, C., & Donovan, D. (2014). Oral vaccination and protection of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) against rabies using ONRAB, an adenovirus-rabies recombinant vaccine. Vaccine, 32(8), 984-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.12.015
Brown LJ, et al. Oral Vaccination and Protection of Red Foxes (Vulpes Vulpes) Against Rabies Using ONRAB, an Adenovirus-rabies Recombinant Vaccine. Vaccine. 2014 Feb 12;32(8):984-9. PubMed PMID: 24374501.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Oral vaccination and protection of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) against rabies using ONRAB, an adenovirus-rabies recombinant vaccine. AU - Brown,L J, AU - Rosatte,R C, AU - Fehlner-Gardiner,C, AU - Bachmann,P, AU - Ellison,J A, AU - Jackson,F R, AU - Taylor,J S, AU - Davies,C, AU - Donovan,D, Y1 - 2013/12/24/ PY - 2013/07/31/received PY - 2013/11/29/revised PY - 2013/12/10/accepted PY - 2013/12/31/entrez PY - 2014/1/1/pubmed PY - 2014/8/16/medline KW - Human adenovirus serotype 5 KW - Immune response KW - ONRAB(®) KW - Oral rabies vaccination KW - Rabies control KW - Rabies virus challenge KW - Red fox KW - Vulpes vulpes SP - 984 EP - 9 JF - Vaccine JO - Vaccine VL - 32 IS - 8 N2 - Twenty-seven red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were each offered a bait containing ONRAB, a recombinant oral rabies vaccine that uses a human adenovirus vector to express the immunogenic rabies virus glycoprotein; 10 controls received no vaccine baits. Serum samples collected from all foxes before treatment, and each week post-treatment for 16 weeks, were tested for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA). In the bait group, a fox was considered a responder to vaccination if serum samples from 3 or more consecutive weeks had RVNA ≥0.5 IU/ml. Using this criterion, 79% of adult foxes (11/14) and 46% of juveniles (6/13) responded to vaccination with ONRAB. Serum RVNA of adults first tested positive (≥0.5 IU/ml) between weeks 1 and 3, about 4 weeks earlier than in juveniles. Adults also responded with higher levels of RVNA and these levels were maintained longer. Serum samples from juveniles tested positive for 1-4 consecutive weeks; in adults the range was 2-15 weeks, with almost half of adults maintaining titres above 0.5 IU/ml for 9 or more consecutive weeks. Based on the kinetics of the antibody response to ONRAB, the best time to sample sera of wild adult foxes for evidence of vaccination is 7-11 weeks following bait distribution. Thirty-four foxes (25 ONRAB, 9 controls) were challenged with vulpine street virus 547 days post-vaccination. All controls developed rabies whereas eight of 13 adult vaccinates (62%) and four of 12 juvenile vaccinates (33%) survived. All foxes classed as non-responders to vaccination developed rabies. Of foxes considered responders to vaccination, 80% of adults (8/10) and 67% of juveniles (4/6) survived challenge. The duration of immunity conferred to foxes would appear adequate for bi-annual and annual bait distribution schedules as vaccinates were challenged 1.5 years post-vaccination. SN - 1873-2518 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24374501/Oral_vaccination_and_protection_of_red_foxes__Vulpes_vulpes__against_rabies_using_ONRAB_an_adenovirus_rabies_recombinant_vaccine_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264-410X(13)01746-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -