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Assessing exposure to secondhand smoke in restaurants and bars 2 years after the smoking regulations in Beijing, China.
Indoor Air. 2014 Aug; 24(4):339-49.IA

Abstract

Field observation of patron smoking behaviors and multiple sampling approaches were conducted in 79 restaurants and bars in Beijing, 2010, 2 years after implementing the governmental smoking regulations. Smoking was observed in 30 visits to 22 of the 37 nominal non-smoking venues during peak patronage times and six visits to four of the 14 nominal non-smoking sections. The median area secondhand smoke (SHS) concentrations during peak patronage time were 27, 15, 43, and 40 μg/m(3) in nominal non-smoking venues, non-smoking sections, smoking sections, and smoking venues, respectively, as indicated by the difference between indoor and outdoor PM2.5 levels; and 1.4, 0.6, 1.7, and 2.7 μg/m(3) , respectively, as indicated by airborne nicotine. In the 27 venues with sampling of different approaches and over different time periods, the median nicotine concentration was 1.8 μg/m(3) by one-hour peak patronage-time sampling, 1.1 μg/m(3) by 1-day active area sampling, 2.5 μg/m(3) by 1-day personal sampling, and 2.3 μg/m(3) by week-long passive sampling. No significant differences in nicotine levels were observed among venues/sections with different nominal smoking policies by all sampling approaches except during peak patronage time. This study showed that the 2008 Beijing governmental smoking restriction has been poorly implemented, and SHS exposures in Beijing restaurants and bars remain high.

PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS

The 2008 Beijing governmental smoking restriction requires large restaurants to designate no less than 50% of their dining area as non-smoking, without defining ‘large’ or specifying how the designated smoking sections and non-smoking sections should be separated. Two years after its implementation, smoking is still commonly observed in nominally non-smoking restaurants and bars and in designated non-smoking sections, and both patrons and servers are exposed to high concentrations of secondhand smoke. These results indicate that the Beijing governmental regulation fails to protect the population from SHS exposure in restaurants and bars and that more efforts are needed to pass stronger smoking regulations and ensure better compliance in Beijing, China.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Public Health, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24387295

Citation

Liu, R, et al. "Assessing Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in Restaurants and Bars 2 Years After the Smoking Regulations in Beijing, China." Indoor Air, vol. 24, no. 4, 2014, pp. 339-49.
Liu R, Jiang Y, Li Q, et al. Assessing exposure to secondhand smoke in restaurants and bars 2 years after the smoking regulations in Beijing, China. Indoor Air. 2014;24(4):339-49.
Liu, R., Jiang, Y., Li, Q., & Hammond, S. K. (2014). Assessing exposure to secondhand smoke in restaurants and bars 2 years after the smoking regulations in Beijing, China. Indoor Air, 24(4), 339-49. https://doi.org/10.1111/ina.12091
Liu R, et al. Assessing Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in Restaurants and Bars 2 Years After the Smoking Regulations in Beijing, China. Indoor Air. 2014;24(4):339-49. PubMed PMID: 24387295.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Assessing exposure to secondhand smoke in restaurants and bars 2 years after the smoking regulations in Beijing, China. AU - Liu,R, AU - Jiang,Y, AU - Li,Q, AU - Hammond,S K, Y1 - 2014/02/07/ PY - 2013/10/16/received PY - 2013/12/24/accepted PY - 2014/1/7/entrez PY - 2014/1/7/pubmed PY - 2015/4/17/medline KW - Airborne nicotine KW - PM 2.5 KW - Personal sampling KW - Restaurants and bars KW - Secondhand smoke KW - Smoking restriction SP - 339 EP - 49 JF - Indoor air JO - Indoor Air VL - 24 IS - 4 N2 - UNLABELLED: Field observation of patron smoking behaviors and multiple sampling approaches were conducted in 79 restaurants and bars in Beijing, 2010, 2 years after implementing the governmental smoking regulations. Smoking was observed in 30 visits to 22 of the 37 nominal non-smoking venues during peak patronage times and six visits to four of the 14 nominal non-smoking sections. The median area secondhand smoke (SHS) concentrations during peak patronage time were 27, 15, 43, and 40 μg/m(3) in nominal non-smoking venues, non-smoking sections, smoking sections, and smoking venues, respectively, as indicated by the difference between indoor and outdoor PM2.5 levels; and 1.4, 0.6, 1.7, and 2.7 μg/m(3) , respectively, as indicated by airborne nicotine. In the 27 venues with sampling of different approaches and over different time periods, the median nicotine concentration was 1.8 μg/m(3) by one-hour peak patronage-time sampling, 1.1 μg/m(3) by 1-day active area sampling, 2.5 μg/m(3) by 1-day personal sampling, and 2.3 μg/m(3) by week-long passive sampling. No significant differences in nicotine levels were observed among venues/sections with different nominal smoking policies by all sampling approaches except during peak patronage time. This study showed that the 2008 Beijing governmental smoking restriction has been poorly implemented, and SHS exposures in Beijing restaurants and bars remain high. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The 2008 Beijing governmental smoking restriction requires large restaurants to designate no less than 50% of their dining area as non-smoking, without defining ‘large’ or specifying how the designated smoking sections and non-smoking sections should be separated. Two years after its implementation, smoking is still commonly observed in nominally non-smoking restaurants and bars and in designated non-smoking sections, and both patrons and servers are exposed to high concentrations of secondhand smoke. These results indicate that the Beijing governmental regulation fails to protect the population from SHS exposure in restaurants and bars and that more efforts are needed to pass stronger smoking regulations and ensure better compliance in Beijing, China. SN - 1600-0668 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24387295/Assessing_exposure_to_secondhand_smoke_in_restaurants_and_bars_2_years_after_the_smoking_regulations_in_Beijing_China_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -