Sleep-disordered breathing in Hispanic/Latino individuals of diverse backgrounds. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Feb 01; 189(3):335-44.AJ
Hispanic/Latino populations have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and may be at risk for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). An understanding of SDB among these populations is needed given evidence that SDB increases cardiovascular risk.
To quantify SDB prevalence in the U.S. Hispanic/Latino population and its association with symptoms, risk factors, diabetes, and hypertension; and to explore variation by sex and Hispanic/Latino background.
Cross-sectional analysis from the baseline examination of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS
The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was derived from standardized sleep tests; diabetes and hypertension were based on measurement and history. The sample of 14,440 individuals had an age-adjusted prevalence of minimal SDB (AHI ≥ 5), moderate SDB (AHI ≥ 15), and severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30) of 25.8, 9.8, and 3.9%, respectively. Only 1.3% of participants reported a sleep apnea diagnosis. Moderate SDB was associated with being male (adjusted odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-3.1), obese (16.8; 11.6-24.4), and older. SDB was associated with an increased adjusted odds of impaired glucose tolerance (1.7; 1.3-2.1), diabetes (2.3; 1.8-2.9), and hypertension. The association with hypertension varied across background groups with the strongest associations among individuals of Puerto Rican and Central American background.
SDB is prevalent in U.S. Latinos but rarely associated with a clinical diagnosis. Associations with diabetes and hypertension suggest a large burden of disease may be attributed to untreated SDB, supporting the development and evaluation of culturally relevant detection and treatment approaches.