Asthma and allergic diseases in preschool children in Korea: findings from the pilot study of the Korean Surveillance System for Childhood Asthma.J Asthma 2014; 51(4):373-9JA
This article was intended to introduce the Korean Surveillance System for Childhood Asthma (KSSCA) and also to determine the factors that increase the risk for the development of asthma and allergic diseases in preschool children in Korea based on the study results.
The KSSCA pilot study was a web-based, cross-sectional survey that sampled 1002 parents with a biological child aged 2-6 years that visited the website and participated in the survey. This website consisted of a questionnaire designed to measure the history and prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases, the characteristics of dwelling, lifestyle, and the socioeconomic status of the subjects. Using logistic regression analysis, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between each risk factor and disease development were calculated.
The rate of a family where a child had asthma was 7.4%, while 34.7% and 35.9% for allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis, respectively. The OR (95% CI) that a child whose parents had an allergic disease and was also diagnosed with an allergic disease was 2.86 (2.20-3.72). Children who lived in the first floor or basement of apartments had a higher risk of atopic dermatitis, as well as children from socioeconomically vulnerable families. Upon analysis of allergic reaction tests and disease development, it was found that asthma was associated with the positive reaction of cockroaches and food, allergic rhinitis with mites, and atopic dermatitis with mold and food.
The study indicated that genetic and some environmental or socioeconomic factors might be important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases among preschool children in Korea through the web-survey.