[Discussion of surgical indications for posterior expansive open-door laminoplasty extended to C1 level].Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2013 Oct; 27(10):1214-20.ZX
To determine the surgical indications for posterior expansive open-door laminoplasty (EOLP) extended to the C1 level.
Seventeen patients undergoing C3-7 or C2-7 open-door laminoplasty were included as the case group between September 2005 and January 2010, whose spinal cord injury symptoms were not alleviated or aggravated again because of the cervical stenosis at C-4 level, and the causes of the surgery itself were eliminated, all of these patients underwent reoperation with decompress upward to C1 level. Fifteen patients with cervical stenosis who underwent C2-7 laminoplasty and C1 laminectomy were selected as the control group. There was no significant difference in gender, age, and disease duration between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The pre- and post-operative cervical curvature and spinal cord compression were evaluated according to the patients' imaging data; the pre- and post-operative neurological recovery situation was evaluated by Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) 17 score and spinal cord function Frankel grade; the neurological recovery rate (according to Hirabayashi et al. method) was used to assess the postoperative neurological recovery situation.
In the case group, 8 patients underwent primary C37 laminoplasty. In 3 of these patients, there was a cervical stenosis at C1, 2 level, and discontinuous cerebrospinal fluid around the spinal cord was observed; 5 of them with a compression mass which diameter was exceed 7.0 mm in the C2-4 segments. The remaining 9 patients in the case group underwent primary C2-7 laminoplasty, and the diameter of the compression mass was exceed 7.0 mm in the C2-4 segments. In all 17 patients of the case group, reoperation was performed with the decompression range extended to the C1 level, and the follow-up time was 35-61 months with an average of 45.6 months. Cervical curvature: there were 11 cases of cervical lordosis, 4 cases of straight spine, and 2 cases of cervical kyphosis before operation; but after operation, 2 cases of cervical lordosis became straight spine and 1 straight case became kyphosis. The postoperative neurological improvement was excellent in 8 cases, good in 7, and fair in 2. In the control group, all the patients had a compression mass which anteroposterior diameter was exceed 7.0 mm in the C2-4 segments before operation. The follow-up time was 30-58 months with an average of 38.7 months. Cervical curvature: there were 13 cases of cervical lordosis and 2 cases of straight spine before operation; but after operation, 1 case of cervical lordosis became straight spine. The postoperative neurological improvement was excellent in 8 cases, good in 6, and fair in 1. No significant difference was found in the JOA score at pre- and post-operation between 2 groups (P > 0.05); however, there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the JOA score between at last follow-up and at preoperation.
The initially surgical indications which can be used as a reference for EOLP extended to C1 are as follows: (1) Upper cervical (C1, 2) spinal stenosis: C1 posterior arch above the lower edge part of cerebrospinal fluid around the spinal cord signal is not continuous, and the anteroposterior diameter of the spinal canal actual is less than 8.0 mm as judgment standard. (2) There is a huge compression at the lower edge of C2-4 vertebrae, and the most prominent part of the diameter is exceed 7.0 mm, which can not be removed through the anterior cervical surgery, or the operation is high-risk.