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Transfer of omega-3 fatty acids across the blood-brain barrier after dietary supplementation with a docosahexaenoic acid-rich omega-3 fatty acid preparation in patients with Alzheimer's disease: the OmegAD study.
J Intern Med 2014; 275(4):428-36JI

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Little is known about the transfer of essential fatty acids (FAs) across the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) in adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether oral supplementation with omega-3 (n-3) FAs would change the FA profile of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

METHODS

A total of 33 patients (18 receiving the n-3 FA supplement and 15 receiving placebo) were included in the study. These patients were participants in the double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized OmegAD study in which 204 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) received 2.3 g n-3 FA [high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] or placebo daily for 6 months. CSF FA levels were related to changes in plasma FA and to CSF biomarkers of AD and inflammation.

RESULTS

At 6 months, the n-3 FA supplement group displayed significant increases in CSF (and plasma) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), DHA and total n-3 FA levels (P < 0.01), whereas no changes were observed in the placebo group. Changes in CSF and plasma levels of EPA and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid were strongly correlated, in contrast to those of DHA. Changes in DHA levels in CSF were inversely correlated with CSF levels of total and phosphorylated tau, and directly correlated with soluble interleukin-1 receptor type II. Thus, the more DHA increased in CSF, the greater the change in CSF AD/inflammatory biomarkers.

CONCLUSIONS

Oral supplementation with n-3 FAs conferred changes in the n-3 FA profile in CSF, suggesting transfer of these FAs across the BBB in adults.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24410954

Citation

Freund Levi, Y, et al. "Transfer of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Across the Blood-brain Barrier After Dietary Supplementation With a Docosahexaenoic Acid-rich Omega-3 Fatty Acid Preparation in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease: the OmegAD Study." Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 275, no. 4, 2014, pp. 428-36.
Freund Levi Y, Vedin I, Cederholm T, et al. Transfer of omega-3 fatty acids across the blood-brain barrier after dietary supplementation with a docosahexaenoic acid-rich omega-3 fatty acid preparation in patients with Alzheimer's disease: the OmegAD study. J Intern Med. 2014;275(4):428-36.
Freund Levi, Y., Vedin, I., Cederholm, T., Basun, H., Faxén Irving, G., Eriksdotter, M., ... Palmblad, J. (2014). Transfer of omega-3 fatty acids across the blood-brain barrier after dietary supplementation with a docosahexaenoic acid-rich omega-3 fatty acid preparation in patients with Alzheimer's disease: the OmegAD study. Journal of Internal Medicine, 275(4), pp. 428-36. doi:10.1111/joim.12166.
Freund Levi Y, et al. Transfer of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Across the Blood-brain Barrier After Dietary Supplementation With a Docosahexaenoic Acid-rich Omega-3 Fatty Acid Preparation in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease: the OmegAD Study. J Intern Med. 2014;275(4):428-36. PubMed PMID: 24410954.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Transfer of omega-3 fatty acids across the blood-brain barrier after dietary supplementation with a docosahexaenoic acid-rich omega-3 fatty acid preparation in patients with Alzheimer's disease: the OmegAD study. AU - Freund Levi,Y, AU - Vedin,I, AU - Cederholm,T, AU - Basun,H, AU - Faxén Irving,G, AU - Eriksdotter,M, AU - Hjorth,E, AU - Schultzberg,M, AU - Vessby,B, AU - Wahlund,L-O, AU - Salem,N,Jr AU - Palmblad,J, Y1 - 2014/01/11/ PY - 2014/1/14/entrez PY - 2014/1/15/pubmed PY - 2014/6/4/medline KW - Alzheimer's disease KW - cerebrospinal fluid KW - docosahexaenoic acid KW - eicosapentaenoic acid KW - omega-3 fatty acids SP - 428 EP - 36 JF - Journal of internal medicine JO - J. Intern. Med. VL - 275 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the transfer of essential fatty acids (FAs) across the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) in adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether oral supplementation with omega-3 (n-3) FAs would change the FA profile of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS: A total of 33 patients (18 receiving the n-3 FA supplement and 15 receiving placebo) were included in the study. These patients were participants in the double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized OmegAD study in which 204 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) received 2.3 g n-3 FA [high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] or placebo daily for 6 months. CSF FA levels were related to changes in plasma FA and to CSF biomarkers of AD and inflammation. RESULTS: At 6 months, the n-3 FA supplement group displayed significant increases in CSF (and plasma) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), DHA and total n-3 FA levels (P < 0.01), whereas no changes were observed in the placebo group. Changes in CSF and plasma levels of EPA and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid were strongly correlated, in contrast to those of DHA. Changes in DHA levels in CSF were inversely correlated with CSF levels of total and phosphorylated tau, and directly correlated with soluble interleukin-1 receptor type II. Thus, the more DHA increased in CSF, the greater the change in CSF AD/inflammatory biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Oral supplementation with n-3 FAs conferred changes in the n-3 FA profile in CSF, suggesting transfer of these FAs across the BBB in adults. SN - 1365-2796 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24410954/Transfer_of_omega_3_fatty_acids_across_the_blood_brain_barrier_after_dietary_supplementation_with_a_docosahexaenoic_acid_rich_omega_3_fatty_acid_preparation_in_patients_with_Alzheimer's_disease:_the_OmegAD_study_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/joim.12166 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -